The Selleck Ferroptosis inhibitor differences observed using both sampling methods were statistically significant for the bacterial samples
p = 0.0015 (Figure 1). The results were comparable with results observed elsewhere . In the current study, the fourth sampling round using both sampling methods higher counts were observed when values were compared with those obtained in other sampling rounds (the first, second and third). This was due to increased human activity (e.g. large number of patients, personnel, and visitors occupying the hospital wards within a short period of time) in rooms as well as corridors while in the first three sampling rounds patients were discharged from the hospital thus there was less activity. The current results are similar to results observed in a study conducted in 2012  where
human activity resulted Selleck Temsirolimus in higher total viable counts. Throughout the entire kitchen area (≤5.8 × 101 cfu/m-3), male (≤4.3 × 101 cfu/m-3) and female wards (≤6.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) in the last round demonstrated high microbial levels (Figure 1) using both sampling methods. Airborne contaminants are usually introduced into the air through production of aerosol droplets by humans via Nutlin 3a coughing, sneezing and talking. Possible sources of bio-aerosols in hospitals are commonly patients, staff and hospital visitors  and results in the current study also indicate
these as possible sources that may have led to an increase in bio-aerosol counts in the fourth rounds. However, no attempts were made in the current study to correlate air samples with clinical samples or with samples from other hospital occupants, which was a noted limitation in the current study. Figure 1 Cultivable airborne bacteria isolated using (A) settling plates and (B) SAS-super 90 in (Kitchen area (1), male ward corridor (2), male ward room 3 (3), male ward room 4 (4), male ward room STK38 5 (5), male ward TB room (6), female ward corridor (7), female ward room 40 (8), female ward preparation room (9) and diabetic female ward (10)). Figure 2 Cultivable airborne fungi isolated using (A) settling plates and (B) SAS-super 90 in (Kitchen area (1), male ward corridor (2), male ward room 3 (3), male ward room 4 (4), male ward room 5 (5), male ward TB room (6), female ward corridor (7), female ward room 40 (8), female ward preparation room (9) and diabetic female ward (10)). The presence of these contaminants in the air may inadvertently introduce pathogenic organisms into the body that at a later stage may cause HAIs . In addition, mainly because of improper food hygiene practices and especially improper cleaning of surfaces, food handlers may be carriers of airborne contaminants that may settle on food preparation areas and be transferred to patients.