There was a trend toward improved function over time

There was a trend toward improved function over time.

Conclusions: Hemidiaphragm paresis results in significant morbidity after repair of congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis and plication result in timely extubation. The plicated diaphragm demonstrates return of function that may improve over time. This is the first study to numerically quantitate the degree of diaphragm recovery.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) generated

from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during hepatic injury has been reported to Trametinib cost contribute to cytoprotection or cellular damage. Rebamipide, anti-gastric ulcer drug, has protective effects in a variety of tissue and organ injury. However, it remains unknown whether rebamipide is involved in the regulation of iNOS

gene expression under pathological conditions. We examined whether rebamipide influences the induction of iNOS in hepatocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokine. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with interleukin (IL)-1 beta in the presence or absence of rebamipide. Pretreatment of cells with rebamipide resulted in up-regulation of iNOS induction by IL-1 beta, followed by increased NO production. PSI-7977 cell line Rebamipide enhanced the degradation of I kappa B alpha and the activation of NF-kappa B. Further, rebamipide super-induced the up-regulation of type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), which is essential for iNOS induction in addition to the I kappa B/NF-kappa B pathway. Transfection experiments revealed that rebamipide increased Montelukast Sodium the transactivation of NOS promoter and the stability of iNOS mRNA. In the latter, rebamipide increased the antisense-tran script corresponding to the 3′-UTR of NOS mRNA, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA by interacting with the 3′-UTR and RNA-binding proteins.

These findings demonstrate that rebamipide up-regulates iNOS by iNOS promoter activation through NF-kappa B, and by its mRNA stabilization presumably through the super-induction of IL-1RI and antisense-transcript. Rebamipide may contribute to a novel potentiated treatment in liver injuries. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby a particular deformity of the aortic arch, an angulated Gothic shape, might lead to hypertension late after anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation.

Methods: Fifty-five normotensive patients with anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation and either a Gothic (angulated) or a Romanesque (smooth and rounded) arch were studied with magnetic resonance angiography and flow mapping in both the ascending and descending aortas. Systolic waveforms, central aortic stiffness, and pulse velocity were measured. We hypothesized that arch angulation would result in enhanced systolic wave reflection with loss of energy across the aortic arch, as well as increased central aortic stiffness.

Results: Twenty patients were found to have a Gothic, and 35 a Romanesque, arch.

7 (eGFR 50-60) to 16 0 (eGFR stage 5); however, there was no sign

7 (eGFR 50-60) to 16.0 (eGFR stage 5); however, there was no significant independent association between these. Unemployment, low income, and lower quality and satisfaction with life scale scores were independently and significantly associated with a higher Beck Depression score. Thus, our study shows that an increased depressive affect is highly prevalent in African Americans with chronic kidney disease, is infrequently treated with antidepressants, and is associated with poorer quality of

life. Sociodemographic factors have especially strong associations with this increased depressive affect. Because this study was conducted in an African-American cohort, its findings may not be generalized to other ethnic groups. Kidney International selleck compound (2010) 77, 1010-1019; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.38; published online 3 March 2010″
“Long-term depression (LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to information storage in the central nervous system. Here we report that LTD can be elicited see more in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat prefrontal cortex by pairing low frequency stimulation with a modest postsynaptic depolarization. The induction of LTD required the activation of

both metabotropic glutamate receptors of the mGlu1 subtype and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs) of the T/R, P/Q and N types, leading to the stimulation of intracellular inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by IP3 and Ca2+. The subsequent release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores activated the protein phosphatase cascade involving calcineurin and protein phosphatase 1. The activation of purinergic P2Y(1) receptors blocked LTD. This effect was prevented by P2Y(1) receptor antagonists and was absent in mice lacking P2Y(1) but not P2Y(2) receptors. We also found that activation of P2Y(1) receptors inhibits Ca2+ transients via VSCCs in the apical dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons. In addition, we show that the release of ATP under hypoxia is able to inhibit LTD by acting on postsynaptic P2Y(1) receptors. In conclusion, these data suggest that the reduction of Ca2+ influx via VSCCs caused by the activation of P2Y(1)

receptors by ATP is the possible mechanism for the inhibition of LTD in prefrontal cortex. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We performed a double-blind SSR128129E placebo-controlled trial to study whether early treatment with erythropoietin could prevent the development of acute kidney injury in patients in two general intensive care units. As a guide for choosing the patients for treatment we measured urinary levels of two biomarkers, the proximal tubular brush border enzymes c-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase. Randomization to either placebo or two doses of erythropoietin was triggered by an increase in the biomarker concentration product to levels above 46.3, with a primary outcome of relative average plasma creatinine increase from baseline over 4 to 7 days.

These results were explained by the composition and format of the

These results were explained by the composition and format of the assays. In addition, using selleck kinase inhibitor receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, a slight adjustment in

cutoff values for third generation EIA kits improved their specificities and should be used when HTLV “”at-risk”" populations from this geographic area are to be evaluated. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: Free-hand insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is a common emergency neurosurgical procedure, mostly performed for critically ill patients. Although EVD complications have been Studied thoroughly, the accuracy of EVD positioning has been audited only occasionally.

METHODS: Post-EVD insertion computed tomographic scans performed in our unit over a 2-year period were analyzed

for EVD tip location and intracranial catheter length.

RESULTS: A total of 183 post-EVD insertion scans were reviewed. Of those, 73 EVD lips (39.9%) were in the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricle (the desired target); of those, 18 (25%) required EVD revision/reinsertion. Of the others, 35 (19.1%) were in the third ventricle, 33 (18%) in the body of the lateral ventricle, 19 (10.4%) in the subarachnoid space, 5 (2.7%) in the contralateral frontal horn, and 18 AC220 mouse (9.8%) within the brain parenchyma. When the EVD tip was outside the desired target, 44 of the patients (40%) required EVD revision/reinsertion procedure (P = 0.0383).

CONCLUSION: Free-hand insertion of an EVD is an inaccurate procedure, and further studies are required to assess the accuracy and feasibility of the routine use of neuro-navigation,

ultrasonography, or other guidance techniques and the possible implication of the decreasing revision rate, complications, and length of hospital stay.”
“The Roche LightCycler (R) 480 (LC480) system was evaluated for quantitative molecular diagnosis of opportunistic viral infections RVX-208 caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and BK virus (BKV), in comparison with “”in-house”" real-time PCR assays. A total of 253 whole blood specimens obtained from transplant recipients were tested. Both the “”in-house”" and the LC480 methods were highly correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient Rho >= 0.85; p < 0.0001) with an excellent overall qualitative agreement (90.5%) and no significant quantitative difference between both techniques for the four viruses tested. The accuracy of the LC480 protocols were confirmed further by the results obtained with the 44 samples from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnosis (QCMD) 2008 proficiency panel. The LC480 system constitutes a suitable and versatile real-time PCR platform in a routine laboratory setting for the diagnosis and monitoring of opportunistic viral infections in transplant recipients, by measuring HCMV, EBV, HHV-6, and BKV loads in whole blood samples. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Leukemia (2011) 25, 1564-1569; doi:10 1038/leu 2011 130; publishe

Leukemia (2011) 25, 1564-1569; doi:10.1038/leu.2011.130; published online 31 May 2011″
“The contemporary neural understanding of motivation is based almost exclusively on the neural mechanisms of incentive motivation. Recognizing this INCB28060 as a limitation, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to pursue the viability of expanding

the neural understanding of motivation by initiating a pioneering study of intrinsic motivation by scanning participants’ neural activity when they decided to act for intrinsic reasons versus when they decided to act for extrinsic reasons. As expected, intrinsic reasons for acting more recruited insular cortex activity while extrinsic reasons for acting more recruited posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity. The results demonstrate that engagement decisions based on intrinsic motivation are more determined by weighing the presence of spontaneous self-satisfactions such as interest and enjoyment while engagement decisions based on extrinsic motivation are more determined by weighing socially-acquired stored values as to whether the environmental incentive is attractive enough to warrant action. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the

Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize SCH727965 in vitro that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even 4��8C greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function.”
“SUMOylation, the covalent attachment

of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier), is a eukaryotic post-translational event that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in several biological processes. When used as an N-terminal tag or fusion partner, SUMO has been shown to enhance functional protein production significantly by improving folding, solubility, and stability. We have engineered several SUMOs and, through their fusion, developed a system for enhancing the expression and secretion of complex proteins. To demonstrate the fidelity of this fusion technology, secreted phospholipase A(2) proteins (sPLA(2)) were produced using HEK-293T and CHO-K1 cells. Five mouse sPLA(2) homologs were expressed and secreted in mammalian cell cultures using SUMO or SUMO-derived, N-terminal fusion partners.

The primary endpoint that occurred in three patients in each grou

The primary endpoint that occurred in three patients in each group was complete disease remission defined as zero on the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score with no persistent or new clinical and/or biological

vasculitis selleck kinase inhibitor at 6 months. No patient had active visceral involvement. The secondary endpoints were renal outcome, deaths, and adverse events at 12 months. Renal function, proteinuria, safety data, incidence of diabetes, and severe infections were similar between the two groups. At the last follow-up, renal function remained stable. The small population size of our study does not permit definitive conclusions; however, we suggest that treatment of adults with severe HSP by adding cyclophosphamide provides no benefit compared with steroids alone. Kidney International (2010) 78, 495-502; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.150; published online 26 May 2010″
“Cocaine/heroin combinations (speedball) induce a synergistic elevation in extracellular dopamine concentrations ([DA](e)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)

that can explain the increased abuse liability of speedball. To further delineate the mechanism of this neurochemical synergism, in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to compare NAc DA release and reuptake kinetic parameters following acute administration of cocaine, heroin and speedball in drug-naive rats. GDC0449 These parameters were extracted from accumbal DA overflow induced by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area. Evoked DA efflux was increased following both cocaine and speedball delivery, whereas heroin did not significantly change evoked DA release from baseline. DA efflux was significantly greater following cocaine compared to speedball. However, DA transporter (DAT) apparent affinity (K(m)) values were similarly elevated following cocaine and speedball

administration, but unaffected by heroin. Neither drug induced substantial changes in the maximal reuptake rate (V(max)). These data, combined with published microdialysis and electrophysiological results, indicate that the combination of cocaine-induced competitive inhibition of DAT and the increase in the DA release elicited by heroin Doxorubicin datasheet is responsible for the synergistic increase in ([DA](e)) induced by speedball. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Several transplant patients maintain stable kidney graft function in the absence of immunosuppression. Here we compared the characteristics of their peripheral B cells to that of others who had stable graft function but were under pharmacologic immunosuppression, to patients with chronic rejection and to healthy volunteers. In drug-free long-term graft function (DF) there was a significant increase in both absolute cell number and frequency of total B cells; particularly activated, memory and early memory B cells. These increased B-cell numbers were associated with a significantly enriched transcriptional B-cell profile.

Interestingly, 90% of patients with initial

popliteal thr

Interestingly, 90% of patients with initial

popliteal thrombus had a patent popliteal vein on postlysis ultrasound imaging, and the presence of tibial thrombus on presentation was predictive of symptom relief with thrombolysis (odds ratio, 13.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-165.58; P = .048).

Conclusions: Inflow thrombosis is common and does not preclude successful thrombolysis of iliofemoral DVT. Valve function is preserved on midterm follow-up, with maintained CEAP class and symptom relief. (J Vase Surg 2011;54: 448-53.)”
“Membrane trafficking and cargo delivery are essential for axonal and dendritic growth and guidance. Neurons have numerous diverse post-Golgi vesicles and recent advances have clarified their identity and regulation. Combinatorial

Ralimetinib datasheet approaches using in vivo imaging of ‘intracellular cargo address labels’ and functional perturbation have provided insight into these processes. In particular, PKA inhibitorinhibitor the UNC-51 kinase regulates the trafficking of early endosomes and their axon guidance molecular cargos in several types of neurons in multiple organisms. Vesicular compartments bearing features of recycling endosomes, late endosomes or lysosomes also contribute to membrane addition and protein trafficking during neurite outgrowth and extension. New work shows that ubiquitylation of cargos and Rab effectors further specifies the trafficking routes of post-Golgi vesicles. These findings have begun to provide a more detailed view of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurite outgrowth and guidance. Additionally, high-resolution light microscopy imaging promises greater temporal and spatial understanding CHIR-99021 manufacturer of vesicular exchange and maturation in neurons in the near future.”
“The second generation antipsychotic drugs are effective treatments for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including the drug olanzapine, have been associated with metabolic side-effects, including weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, which increase

the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Rodent models of olanzapine-induced metabolic side-effects have been used to study the physiology of these effects, but only at a single time point after drug treatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal changes with chronic antipsychotic drug treatment. Adult female rats were treated with either olanzapine (15 mg/kg) or vehicle for five consecutive days each week, followed by a 48 h washout period. Animals were then challenged with either olanzapine (15 mg/kg) or vehicle, and fasting glucose and insulin values were recorded, as well as glucose clearance in the glucose tolerance test. Treatment with olanzapine was continued for 10 weeks, with weekly tests of metabolic indices.

Concordantly, LTP was enhanced by acutely blocking ErbB4 in wild-

Concordantly, LTP was enhanced by acutely blocking ErbB4 in wild-type animals, indicating that ErbB4 activity constitutively suppresses LTR Moreover, increasing ErbB4 signaling further suppressed LTP. By contrast, altering ErbB4 activity did not affect basal synaptic transmission or short-term facilitation. Our findings suggest that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may be a consequence of hyperfunction of ErbB4 signaling leading to suppressed glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, thus opening new approaches for the treatment of this disorder.”
“Surface-treated titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles

coated with vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) are used industrially for selective catalytic reactions such Selleckchem Sepantronium as the removal of nitrous oxide from selleck kinase inhibitor exhaust gases of combustion power plants (SCR process) and in biomaterials for increasing the strength of implants. In the present study, untreated ultrafine TiO2 particles ( anatase, diameter: 30-50 nm) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)- treated anatase particles were tested for their cyto- and genotoxic effects in V79 cells ( hamster lung fibroblasts). Cytotoxic effects of the particles were assessed by trypan blue exclusion, while genotoxic effects were investigated by micronucleus (MN) assay. In addition,

the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by the acellular method of electron spin resonance technique (ESR) and by the cellular technique of determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Our results demonstrate that V2O5-treated TiO2 particles induce more potent cyto- and genotoxic effects than untreated particles. Further, acellular and cellular radical formation was more pronounced with V2O5-anatase than untreated Bay 11-7085 anatase. Thus, data indicate that V2O5-treated TiO2 particles were

more reactive than natural anatase and capable of inducing DNA damage in mammalian cells through production of free radicals.”
“A simultaneous evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic positron emission tomography markers, the dopamine transporters and the dopamine D-2-like receptors, was performed in eight patients with parkinsonian phenotype of multiple system atrophy. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic markers were revealed to have declined in such a manner that they kept strong positive correlation throughout the striatum of all patients, suggesting that the degeneration process in the striatum may involve the entire structure of the dopaminergic synapse. In two L-3,4,dihydroxyphenyl-alanine-responsive cases, the balance of decline in two markers was relatively shifted to presynaptic dominant side.

Following removal of the outer lipid/protein membrane, a layer 20

Following removal of the outer lipid/protein membrane, a layer 20 to 40 nm in thickness was encountered

that was composed of fibrous elements which, under reducing conditions, rapidly decomposed into individual monomers on the substrate. Beneath this layer was the virus core and its prominent lateral bodies, which could be dissociated or degraded with proteases. The core, in addition to the lateral bodies, selleck chemical was composed of a thick, multillayered shell of proteins of diverse sizes and shapes. The shell, which was readily etched with proteases, was thoroughly permeated with pores, or channels. Prolonged exposure to proteases and reductants produced disgorgement of the viral DNA from the remainders of the cores and also left residual, flattened, protease-resistant sacs on the imaging substrate. The DNA was readily visualized by AFM, which revealed some

regions to be “”soldered”" by proteins, others to be heavily complexed with protein, and yet other parts to apparently exist as bundled, naked DNA. Prolonged exposure to proteases deproteinized the DNA, leaving masses of extended, free DNA. Estimates of the interior core volume suggest moderate but not extreme compaction of the genome.”
“Reduced brain N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) has been repeatedly found in chronic schizophrenia and suggests neuronal loss or dysfunction. However, the potential confounding effect of antipsychotic drugs on NAA has not been resolved. We studied 32 minimally treated schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy subjects with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the frontal and occipital lobes, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum. Concentrations of NAA,

Choline, and Cre were determined and corrected for the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the voxel. Patients were treated in a randomized-controlled double-blind manner with either haloperidol or quetiapine. Methamphetamine (1)H-MRS was repeated every 6 months for up to 2 years. There was a group main effect for baseline NAA with lower global NAA in schizophrenia subjects before treatment compared to healthy controls. Global NAA was directly related to measures of global cognitive performance in the whole subject sample. Following treatment with haloperidol or quetiapine, there were no changes in NAA in any of the regions studied. Early in the illness, schizophrenia patients already demonstrate subtle reductions in NAA. Treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotic medications for several months does not result in NAA changes.”
“CD8 T cells play a major role in antiviral immune responses. Their importance for progression to chronic hepatitis C and response to treatment are still unclear.

The duplex real-time RT-PCR was capable of specifically detecting

The duplex real-time RT-PCR was capable of specifically detecting different subgroups of wild-type CSFV and different strains of NAgenotype PRRSV, whereas a number of non-CSFV/PRRSV porcine viruses and bovine pestivirus were tested negative. Out Of 155 field samples, 16 were tested positive for CSFV, 73 were positive for PRRSV, and 13 were co-infected with the two Viruses. These results were 99.4% in agreement with those using conventional RT-PCRs. Therefore, the assay provides sensitive and simultaneous detection and differentiation of CSFV and PRRSV. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“Spontaneously depressed flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats showed a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus, as compared to “”non-depressed”" flinders resistant line (FRL) rats. No

changes in mGlu2/3 receptor protein this website levels were found in other brain regions, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex. Biochemical analysis of receptor signalling supported the reduction of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus selleckchem of FSL rats. Accordingly, the selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, LY379268 (1 mu M) reduced forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation by 56% and 32% in hippocampal slices from FRL and FSL rats, respectively. In addition, LY379268 enhanced 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis from 65% to 215% in hippocampal slices from FRL rats, whereas it was inactive in slices from FRL rats. We also examined the behavioural response of FSL rats to systemic injection see more of LY379268 (0.5 mg/kg,

i.p., once a day for 1-21 days) by measuring the immobility time in the forced swim test, which is known to be increased in these rats. LY379268 was administered alone or combined with the classical antidepressant, chlorimipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). LY379268 alone had no effect at any of the selected time-points, whereas chlorimipramine alone reduced the immobility time only after 21 days of treatment. In contrast, when combined with LY379268, chlorimipramine reduced the immobility time during the first 14 days of treatment. These data support the view that rnGlu2/3 receptors might be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, and that pharmacological activation of these receptors may shorten the latency of antidepressant medication. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a unique gene amplification method that can be completed within 45 min at 63 degrees C. In this study, RT-LAMP was used to develop a rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnostic system for the H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV).

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“The ae

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aerial spray program for the eradication of coca in Colombia uses Glyphos,

a local formulation of glyphosate tank-mixed with an adjuvant product, Cosmo-Flux. There are some potential risks to amphibians from direct overspraying of shallow waters. In order to evaluate potential alternative mixtures, a field experiment was conducted at the Center of National Training of Police Operations in Tolima province, Colombia. Plants of coca were established with irrigation and grown to Selleck Savolitinib 75 cm tall. A randomized split-plot design experiment was laid out and sprayed with a range of glyphosate formulations and different adjuvants using an experimental ground sprayer. Assessments were made of plant vigor, height, and above-ground

standing crop (fresh weight) 3 wk after application. Resprouting of plants was assessed at 9 wk after treatment. Unformulated glyphosate applied as the product Rodeo gave poorer control of coca than two formulated products, Roundup Biactive (from Europe) and Colombian Glyphos. In general, these products performed well without added adjuvants, giving control similar to that of the eradication mixture with Cosmo-Flux. There was some evidence that addition of the adjuvant Silwet L-77 and to a lesser extent Mixture B (from the United Kingdom) gave more rapid herbicide symptoms. There were also indications that glyphosate rates of less than 3.69 kg acid equivalents (a.e.)/ha could give control in the mTOR inhibitor range of 95%. Depending on the environmental risk requirements, the experiment indicates that, should other spray mixtures be required, there are potential alternatives. These would require extensive field testing to cover

different environmental conditions, different coca varieties, and particularly aerial application, prior to a recommendation. Should the glyphosate product require changing, Roundup Biactive 6-phosphogluconolactonase may be considered. Should the adjuvant require changing, then on the basis of this research, Silwet L-77 and Mixture B would be good candidates for further evaluation.”
“Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug used to treat intermittent claudication, has been reported to offer neuroprotection and endothelial protection in animals with ischemic brain injury. Here, we evaluated the protection afforded by cilostazol against ischemic brain injury and hemorrhagic transformation. Mice subjected to a 2-h filamental middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion were treated with cilostazol (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally just after the occlusion) or with vehicle. Histological outcomes (infarct volume and hemorrhagic transformation) and Evans blue extravasation were assessed after reperfusion.