Previous work has shown that body weight and monthly LAR dose wil

Previous work has shown that body weight and monthly LAR dose will significantly affect circulating plasma octreotide levels in patients undergoing therapy.\n\nMethods: To determine if other parameters change circulating plasma octreotide levels, we prospectively studied 82 patients undergoing long-term LAR therapy.\n\nResults: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the plasma octreotide levels decrease

by approximately 3.4% for each unit of body mass index (BMI) increase (P = 0.03), adjusting for sex and monthly LAR dose. Plasma octreotide levels for females were approximately 47.6% higher than those for males (P = 0.045), adjusting for BMI and monthly LAR dose. Initial and subsequent octreotide LAR doses should take into consideration sex and BMI. Males are estimated to require 14.1-mg (SD, 7.25) higher monthly LAR doses than females with the same BMI.\n\nConclusions: We have shown selleck compound that plasma octreotide levels are affected by not only monthly LAR dose but also BMI and sex. We hope these observations will make choosing initial and subsequent octreotide LAR doses easier for physicians.”
“Purpose of Study. Diagnosis of prosthetic loosening in hip and knee arthroplasty remains a challenge. Although there are a number of diagnostic tools, no single test or combination is 100% sensitive or Selleckchem BYL719 specific. There has been

a recent interest in the use of radionuclide arthrography (RNA) for detection of prosthetic loosening. Methods. A retrospective review of 45 consecutive RNA scans from 2005 to 2010 was conducted. RNA findings were compared with intraoperative findings at revision and/or serial radiographic examinations to confirm loosening. A component

was considered loose if sequential radiographs demonstrated macromotion, gross subsidence, or progressive radiolucency. Results. There were 26 females and 17 males, with mean age at RNA of 71 years (range of 53-89 years) and mean time from index surgery, 6.4 years (range of 0.5-23 years). There were 23 total knee replacements (TKR) (19 primary and 4 revision) and 20 total hip replacements (THR) (11 primary Stem Cell Compound Library supplier and 9 revision). 15 patients underwent revision surgery following RNA. Strict inclusion criteria allowed 27 patients for further analysis. Sixteen RNA scans were suggestive of loosening, of which 14 were confirmed loose. Eleven scans were suggestive of a stable prosthesis, of which 10 were confirmed well fixed. RNA had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 88%, and negative predictive value of 91%. Conclusion. Radionuclide arthrography should be considered a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of prosthetic loosening in the challenging patient.”
“Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) occupy a key position in the Southern Ocean linking primary production to secondary consumers.

4 cm(2), 20 J/cm(2)-session, 140 J/cm(2)-treatment) in

4 cm(2), 20 J/cm(2)-session, 140 J/cm(2)-treatment) in Selumetinib inhibitor four points around the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 2 weeks. At both 15th and 30th days following sacrifice, samples were taken and analyzed by light microscopy. Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA + Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone

repair at the end of the experiment. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Twin support vector machine (TWSVM) is a research hot spot in the field of machine learning in recent years. Although its performance is better than traditional support vector machine (SVM), the kernel selection problem still affects the performance of TWSVM directly.

Wavelet analysis has the characteristics of selleck compound multivariate interpolation and sparse change, and it is suitable for the analysis of local signals and the detection of transient signals. The wavelet kernel function based on wavelet analysis can approximate any nonlinear functions. Based on the wavelet kernel features and the kernel function selection problem, wavelet twin support vector machine (WTWSVM) is proposed by this paper. It introduces the wavelet kernel function AZD8055 in vitro into TWSVM to make the combination of wavelet analysis techniques and TWSVM come true. The experimental results indicate that WTWSVM is feasible, and it improves the classification accuracy

and generalization ability of TWSVM significantly.”
“Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Genetic variations play a major role in the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, rs9289231 genetic variations of the Kalirin gene (KALRN) on chromosome 3q21.2 have been introduced as potential genetic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD). Objective: In this case-control study, we investigated the association between genetic susceptibility to CAD and rs9289231 G/T polymorphism, located on the KALRN gene, in an Iranian population. Methods: Our cohort consisted of 1486 individuals undergoing coronary angiography. Of these, we considered the 1007 patients with CAD to be case individuals and the 479 individuals with normal coronary conditions to be control individuals. We performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping via the high resolution melting (HRM) technique. Results: Our data showed that the minor allele (G) frequency of rs9289231 SNP was higher in our CAD group than that in our control group (odds ratio, 1:37; confidence interval, 1.07-1.74; P = .01). The results of our data analysis highlighted a genetic association between rs9289231 polymorphism and severity and development of CAD.

Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reproductive traits of Japanese anchovy Engraulis

japonicus were compared among the subtropical, subarctic, and inland sea areas around Japan. Adult anchovy in the subarctic areas were large in body size (standard length SL > 120 mm, body weight BW > 20 g) and had gonad-somatic index (GSI = GW x 10(2)/BW) greater than 7.0. Their total (per female) and specific (per 1 g BW) fecundity, estimated by the number of advanced oocytes in the ovary, were 18000 and 700, respectively. Their spawning activity was detected in June and July. In the subtropical sea areas, on the other hand, adults with advanced oocytes occurred all year round except for December and January. Their body and gonad sizes were large in spring (SL > Prexasertib nmr 120 mm, BW > 20 g, GSI > 5.0) with high total ( > 4500) and specific ( > 300) fecundities, but decreased in summer and autumn to as small as SL < 60 mm and total and specific fecundity of 50 and 30, respectively. These diverse biological traits suggested that the reproductive ecology of anchovy is adaptive to local sea areas around Japan.”
“Objectives: To analyze changes in real per capita spending by age and sex from 1998 to 2008 in Spain, and to assess

their effects on public healthcare expenditure projections.\n\nMethods: HDAC assay Age- and sex-related expenditure profiles in constant terms were estimated for the Spanish population for 3 distinct years (1998, 2003 and 2008) by using data from hospital records and several National Health Surveys. These profiles were used to compare actual

healthcare expenditure for 2003 and 2008 with the projections obtained by considering 1998 as the base year and by applying the methodology used by the Working Group on Aging of the European Union.\n\nResults: The average annual growth rate of real per capita spending per person from 1998 to 2008 was 2.79%, which was higher than the GDP per capita growth rate (1.90%), basically due to its high rate of increase in the second half of the decade. From 1998 to 2008, per capita healthcare expenditure increased in most age groups, particularly in the groups aged 45-49 years, 60-64 years and 75 years and older. Projections of per capita expenditure in constant terms covered the real value observed for 2003, but were below the real value for 2008.\n\nConclusions: Changes in the quantity and quality of healthcare services consumed by each person are an important factor in changes in healthcare expenditure and must be included in spending projections. (C) 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems.

“Axons navigating through the developing nervous system ar

“Axons navigating through the developing nervous system are instructed

by external attractive and repulsive cues. Emerging evidence suggests the same cues control dendrite development, but it is not understood how they differentially instruct axons and dendrites. We studied a C. elegans motor neuron whose axon and dendrite adopt different trajectories and lengths. We found that the guidance cue UNC-6 (Netrin) is required for both axon and dendrite development. Its repulsive receptor UNC-5 repelled the axon from Cl-amidine cell line the ventral cell body, whereas the attractive receptor UNC-40 (DCC) was dendritically enriched and promotes anteroposterior dendritic growth. Although the endogenous ventrally secreted UNC-6 instructs axon guidance, dorsal or even membrane-tethered UNC-6 could support dendrite development. Unexpectedly, the serine-threonine kinase PAR-4 (LKB1) was selectively required for the activity of the UNC-40 pathway in dendrite outgrowth. These data suggest that axon and dendrite of one neuron interpret common environmental cues with

different receptors and downstream signaling pathways.”
“Cisplatin is a major broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, however, its dose-dependent find more side effects limit the administration of large doses. Presently, developing a drug targeted delivery system is suggested as one of the most promising approaches to minimize the side effects of cisplatin. Here, we found that each human serum transferrin (HTf) has the potential to bind with over 22 cisplatins, and the complex of apo-HTf-cisplatin can specifically deliver cisplatin to HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma click here cell line) in vitro, and facilitate HepG2 cells to apoptosis. Moreover, proteomics methods revealed that the abundances of 23 proteins in HepG2 cells were remarkably altered

in response to cisplatin/apo-HTf-cisplatin exposure, and Realtime-PCR revealed that a number of important genes related to chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity and chemotherapeutic resistance are differentially transcribed between the HepG2 cells of cisplatin exposed and HTf-cisplatin exposed. The pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins and gene transcriptions indicated that those regulated proteins and gene transcriptions are involved in apoptosis regulation, transcription, cell cycle control, protein biosynthesis, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein binding and other functions. It indicated that the cisplatin toxicity in HepG2 cell is diverse, the transport process has an effect on the cisplatin cytotoxicity, and the mechanism of the apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by apo-HTf-cisplatin is different from that of cisplatin. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

“The electronic structure of the two lowest excited

“The electronic structure of the two lowest excited Galardin chemical structure electronic states of FAD and FADH(.) in folate-depleted E coli DNA photolyase (PL(OX) and PL(SQ), respectively) was measured using absorption Stark spectroscopy. The experimental analysis was supported by TDDFT calculations of both the charge redistribution and the difference dipole moments for the transitions of both oxidation states using lumiflavin as a model. The difference dipole moments and polarizabilities for PL(OX) are similar to those obtained in our previous

work for flavins in simple solvents and in an FMN-containing flavoprotein. No such comparison can be made for PL(SQ), as we believe this to be the first experimental report of the direction and magnitude of excited-state charge redistribution in any flavosemiquinone. The picture that emerges from these studies is discussed in the context of electron transfer in photolyase, particularly for the semiquinone photoreduction process, which involves nearby tryptophan residues as electron donors. The direction of charge displacement derived from an analysis of the Stark spectra rationalizes the positioning of the critical Trp382 residue relative to the flavin for efficient vectorial electron transfer

leading to photoreduction. The ramifications of vectorial charge redistribution are discussed Selleck 3 MA in the context of the wider class of flavoprotein blue light photoreceptors.”
“Background: Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious learn more public health concern. Research has shown that prevention programs targeting

parents can help prevent underage drinking. The problem is that parental participation in these kinds of interventions is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine non-participation in a parental support program aiming to prevent underage alcohol drinking. The Health Belief Model has been used as a tool for the analysis.\n\nMethods: To understand non-participation in a parental program a quasi-experimental mixed-method design was used. The participants in the study were invited to participate in a parental program targeting parents with children in school years 7-9. A questionnaire was sent home to the parents before the program started. Two follow-up surveys were also carried out. The inclusion criteria for the study were that the parents had answered the questionnaire in school year 7 and either of the questionnaires in the two subsequent school years (n = 455). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine reasons for non-participation. The final follow-up questionnaire included an opened-ended question about reasons for non-participation. A qualitative content analysis was carried out and the two largest categories were included in the third model of the multinomial logistic regression analysis.\n\nResults: Educational level was the most important socio-demographic factor for predicting non-participation.

In addition, an examination of eight stool samples allowed the id

In addition, an examination of eight stool samples allowed the identification of a corresponding

CAZome core containing 46 families of glycoside hydrolases and polysaccharide lyases, which suggests the functional stability of the gut microbiota FK228 despite large taxonomical variations between individuals.”
“Segmentectomy is one of the treatment options for small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although growing results support the feasibility and efficacy, it still remains unclear in segmentectomy. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer recommended a revised classification of TNM staging in 2009 (the seventh edition) and multidisciplinary classification of adenocarcinoma. We report here the outcome of totally thoracoscopic segmentectomy and lobectomy for T factor and adenocarcinoma.\n\nNinety patients with Stage IA NSCLC underwent thoracoscopic segmentectomy OSI-744 datasheet between September 2003 and June 2011. A total of 124 patients were referred as a control group to compare the peri-operative outcome, local recurrence rate and survival. These survivals were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank

test and propensity score analyses.\n\nThe peri-operative outcome, including operative time, blood loss, duration of chest tube drainage and length of hospital stay, was not significantly different between groups. The number of dissected lymph nodes with segmentectomy was less than that with lobectomy. Morbidity and mortality were not significantly different between groups. Seven patients relapsed in GDC-0068 order each group and propensity score analysis in disease-free and overall survivals showed no differences

between two groups in Stage IA. Subclass analyses revealed that disease-free and overall survivals in T1a and T1b were not significantly different between the two groups.\n\nOur study demonstrated that thoracoscopic segmentectomy was feasible with regard to peri-operative and oncological outcomes for Stage IA NSCLC, especially T1a and carefully selected T1b descriptor.”
“This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group.

MethodsA population-based retrospective cohort study was conducte

MethodsA population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the national pharmacy claims database in Ireland. Subjects were

analyzed for persistence and regimen change. Cox proportional hazards regression examined associations of socio-demographic and treatment factors on treatment patterns. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs are presented. ResultsA total of 20947 subjects were identified in the study over a 2 year period. Most were initiated on metformin (76%) or sulphonylureas (22%) and 77% were persistent with therapy 12 months after initiation. The likelihood of non-persistence was significantly lower in the youngest (40-49 years) age groups (reference 60-69 years) (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.42, 1.84) and those on sulphonylureas (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.36, 1.64). The likelihood of receiving a regimen change was significantly lower in the older (80+ years) age groups (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56, 0.71), females (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86, 0.95), PD0332991 and those with pre-existing CVD (1 vs. 0 CVD medicines) (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74, 0.90), and higher in those on sulphonylureas (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.73, 1.94). ConclusionsType of treatment, pre-existing CVD and demographic factors are shown to be associated with the observed treatment patterns. Guideline recommended agents were widely used on treatment initiation though a substantial

minority were not initiated on the recommended first line agent. Use of guideline recommended agents was not as evident during treatment progression. Further optimization of initial

and subsequent antidiabetic agent prescribing may be possible.”
“Thrombolytic therapy improves the overall outcome of many patients with acute ischemic stroke, but it is associated with complications such as symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Several factors predict the risk of hemorrhage. Dramatic BMS-777607 changes in the coagulation profile following thrombolytic therapy have not been well studied. However, it is unknown if commonly used laboratory tests for coagulation are of predictive value. Yet these tests are commonly requested to predict or treat symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. When such tests are abnormal, they may present a management dilemma. In this report, we present two cases of coagulopathy following thrombolytic therapy without symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage that were managed differently. Our report suggests that dramatic changes occur in the coagulation profile of patients who receive thrombolytic therapy, but may not clearly predict symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, other factors should be considered when managing these patients.”
“Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a fatal, dominant neurodegenerative disorder. MJD results from polyglutamine repeat expansion in the MJD-1 gene, conferring a toxic gain of function to the ataxin-3 protein.

The cysteine residues of the related Vp1 of SV40 are known to con

The cysteine residues of the related Vp1 of SV40 are known to contribute to Vp1 folding, pentamer formation, pentamer-pentamer

contacts, and capsid stabilization. In light of the presence of a slight structural difference between JCV Vp1 and SV40 counterpart, the way the former folds could be either different from or similar to the latter. We found a difference: an important contribution of Vp1 cysteines to the formation of infectious virions, unique in JCV and absent in SV40. Having introduced amino acid substitution at each of six cysteines (C42, C80, C97, C200, C247, and C260) in JCV Vp1, we found that, when expressed in HeLa cells, the Vp1 level was decreased in C80A and C247A mutants, and NSC-23766 remained normal in the other mutants. Additionally, the C80A and C247A Vp1-expressing cell extracts did not show the hemagglutination activity characteristic of JCV particles. The C80A and C247A mutant Vp1s were found to be less stable than the wild-type Vp1 in HeLa cells. When produced in a reconstituted in vitro protein translation system, these two mutant proteins were stable, suggesting that some cellular factors were responsible for their degradation.

As determined by their sucrose gradient sedimentation profiles, in vitro translated C247A Vp1 formed pentamers, but in vitro translated C80A Vp1 was entirely monomeric. When individually incorporated into the JCV genome, the C80A and C247A mutants, but not the learn more other Vp1 cysteine residues mutants, interfered with JCV infectivity. Furthermore, the C80A, but not the C247A, mutation prevented the nuclear localization of Vp1 in JCV genome transfected cells. These findings suggest that C80 of JCV Vp1 is required

for Vp1 stability and pentamer formation, and C247 is involved in capsid assembly in the nucleus.”
“Background and purpose: Daily intake of aspirin was shown to decrease human cerebral aneurysm rupture by 60%. The feasibility of imaging macrophages in Ricolinostat cost human cerebral aneurysm walls using ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has been demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to image aspirin effect on macrophages in the wall of human cerebral aneurysm using ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI.\n\nMaterial and methods: Five patients with known intracranial aneurysms underwent baseline imaging using T2(star) gradient-echo and T1 MRI sequences using ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI 72-hour post-ferumoxytol infusion. Patients then received 81 mg aspirin per as daily. After 3 months, imaging studies were repeated and analyzed by co-registration using a histogram and subtraction of follow-up images from baseline.\n\nResults: In all five patients, after 3 months of treatment with aspirin, the signal intensity corresponding to the uptake of ferumoxytol by macrophages in the aneurysm wall was less intense than in the baseline images. This was confirmed by co-registration of images using histogram and subtraction of follow-up images from baseline.

The evaluation was done throughout a two-year period in a diagnos

The evaluation was done throughout a two-year period in a diagnostic routine laboratory. Furthermore, the sensitivity of four different methods, the in-house L pneumophila antibody test (ELISA), the urinary antigen test (Binax (R) EIA), an in-house PCR and culture, both alone and in combination was evaluated.\n\nFrom 2008 to 2010, 12,158 serum samples

from 10,503 patients were analysed. During the same period, 361 cases LY3039478 cell line of laboratory-confirmed LD cases were recorded in Denmark, but of these only 113 had a serum sample examined. The positive predictive value of the in-house ELISA was calculated to be 12.8 and the negative predictive value was 99.6, using only the confirmed LD cases as true positives.\n\nThe sensitivity of the in-house ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in the confirmed LD Fedratinib price cases was 61% and 36%, respectively. By combining the two ELISA assays the sensitivity increased to 66%. The sensitivity of the Legionella urinary antigen test (Binax EIA) was 63%, of the in-house PCR 87% and of culture 69%. When all the different methods were combined, a higher sensitivity was calculated – for in-house ELISA (IgM + IgG) and Binax (R) EIA 91%, in-house ELISA (IgM + IgG) and in-house PCR 93%, in-house

ELISA (IgM + IgG) and culture 93%, Binax (R) EIA and in-house PCR 79%, Binax (R) EIA and culture 68% and in-house PCR and culture 94%.\n\nThis study confirms that the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA is an important diagnostic tool, also.-during the initial phase of the disease. Furthermore, we showed that LD in Denmark with or without serum samples collected exhibits the same age and sex distribution and epidemiology, as in the rest of Europe, i.e., mostly men

are infected, infections are mostly community acquired, followed by infection from travelling abroad. Apart from patients with notified LD, the patients investigated by serology were evenly distributed in all age groups; there was only a slightly higher ratio of men tested for “atypical pneumonia” in the serology laboratory. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Nuclear magnetic resonance SB203580 datasheet spectroscopic methods have been used to characterize the chemical composition of floral nectar of Anigozanthos species with a minimum of sample preparation and without derivatization. The nectar of this passerine-pollinated plant is largely dominated by glucose and fructose, while sucrose occurs only at a minor level. Tyrosine, several additional amino acids, and a variety of carboxylic acids were identified and their concentrations estimated. A linear diarylheptanoid was detected as a trace component, marking the first time this type of secondary product in Hemodoraceae has been found.”
“A method to separate the four stereoisomers of a chiral thiazolidine-2, 4-dione containing two stereocenters was developed.

gambiae s s in Ghana In this study, the ability of these vecto

gambiae s. s. in Ghana. In this study, the ability of these vectors in transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti in nine lymphatic filariasis endemic communities in Gomoa District of Ghana Alvocidib concentration after four rounds of MDA with ivermectin and albendazole was investigated.\n\nMethods: After mass screening of inhabitants

in these communities, twelve consenting volunteers with different intensities of microfilariae (mf) slept under partly opened mosquito nets as sources of mf blood meal. Hourly collection of mosquitoes and finger-pricked blood were taken from 21.00 to 06.00 hours the following day. For each hour, half of the mosquitoes collected were immediately killed and dissected for mf. The remaining half were maintained up to 13 days for parasite maturation. Parasitaemia and infection rates in the mosquitoes were determined by microscopy. The mosquitoes were identified by microscopy Selleck Nirogacestat and molecular techniques.\n\nResults: A total of 1,083 participants were screened and the overall parasite prevalence was 1.6% with mf intensities ranging from 0 to 59 per 100 mu l and geometric mean intensity of 1.1 mf per ml of blood. Of the 564 mosquitoes collected, 350 (62.1%) were Anopheles spp., from which 310 (88.6%) were An. funestus and 32 (9.1%) An. gambiae. Six anopheline mosquitoes (1.7%) were found infected with L-1, but no larva was observed in any of the mosquitoes maintained

up to 13 days. Molecular studies showed all An. gambiae s. l. to be An. gambiae s. s., of which 21 (70%) were of the M molecular form.\n\nConclusion: At low-level parasitaemia after 4 rounds of MDA, there was no recovery of infective stage larvae of W. bancrofti in An. funestus s. l. as well as M and S forms of An. gambiae.”

this study, river stage variation derived from satellite altimetry was used to assess the water level, monthly discharge, and annual water yield at six virtual gauging stations at the braided reaches of the Brahmaputra River. The braided reaches of the river dynamically change their planform, thalweg line, and aggradation or degradation period. Dihydrotestosterone mw Stage records derived from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency and Topex/Poseidon of NASA/CNES were used for the period 2002-2010. Spatial interpolation and datum correction were applied on altimetry-derived river stage records before analysis. A correlation and error analysis between the in situ and satellite-altimetry-derived stages was carried out for these stations for both monsoon and non-monsoon seasons. Yearly optical satellite images were used for qualitative assessment of temporal variations in aggradation/degradation phases at the gauging stations. Using the pseudo-rating curve, discharges at two virtual gauging stations were estimated. The results show that the altimetry-estimated discharges are of good agreement with observed discharge for the monsoon months (June-September) as compared with the non-monsoon months (October-May).