The brightness tarps are used in this study as validation targets, i.e., to calibrate laser points of natural brightness targets (e.g., sand and gravel). Knowing the exact backscattering properties for those tarps, other samples can be corrected .To get a sample of a natural target for laboratory measurement is not always an easy task (e.g. in case of asphalt or concrete). Because of this, we developed an NIR camera-based field system for reference measurements. A Fuji IS PRO with an 850 nm IR-filter and ISO 100 1/250s exposure time was used with a Nikon SB800 flash, for which the output power variation was about 2%. A calibration frame (295 �� 210 mm) was placed around the target to measure the reflectance (see Figure. 3).
The frame cover is made of commercial white balance and exposure calibration target Lastolite XpoBalance, which has linear spectral response from 400 to 1,000 nm. To avoid shelf shadowing effect, only these areas of the target are selected, that have no shadows.Figure 3.Measurements of concrete in Kivenlahti Harbor with Fuji IS PRO camera and the calibration frame.This system allows us to take reflectance measurements, without collecting samples and measuring them in the laboratory. The NIR camera is useful for collecting the in situ reference data. The NIR camera application gives the larger bulk of data for the area of interest than spectrometers, which gives us an opportunity to understand more about the reflectance variations within one sample (e.g. beach sand, for which the surface brightness showed some spatial variation).3.
?Airborne laser scanner intensity data correctionThe laser points for each sample area were extracted, using the TerraScan (Terrasolid Ltd) program. The sample areas were chosen so, that they would be on a plane surface. This allows us to approximate the scan angle to be the same as the incidence angle and makes computation easier. The incidence angle is defined as an angle between surface normal and incoming laser beam. In the case of flat surfaces, the scan angle and incidence Entinostat angle coincide (see Figure 4).Figure 4.Difference between incidence angle and scan angle.We assume the surfaces to have Lambertian backscatter properties. The incidence or scan angle effect in our case causes the reduction in the amount of light coming back to the sensor and could be corrected by multiplying the intensity value with 1/cos�� , where �� is the incidence angle.
The incidence angle for each point can be calculated from the coordinates of the laser point and the scanner position.In this study, there are several flights with different altitudes. The flying height plays an important role to the received power, which is related to the intensity. The inverse range-square dependency on the intensity value is called spherical loss [5,6]. The higher the flying altitude, the lower is the received power.