31 The uniparental markers revealed that the first split of non-Africans from their ancestors occurred ∼60,000 years ago (K = 2; where K corresponds to the number of distinct clades-populations the dataset is divided) (Fig. 5). The next split separates data into partitions from five geographic regions (K = 5; Africa, East Asia, South Asia, www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html Oceania, and Europe) occurring ∼40,000 years ago.31 Finally, an additional geographic division appears from America more
recently at ∼20,000 years. The cladogenesis of the major HBV lineages, estimated to have occurred ∼20,000 years ago (Fig. 5), is highly consistent with the split times in both uniparental markers’ trees distinguishing all major continents,31 suggesting that HBV major clades were generated as a result of major migrations of human populations (Fig. 5). As suggested by phylogeographic analyses performed on the Bayesian trees, genotype A originated in Africa ∼10.0 ka (Table 2). At ∼7.9 ka, genotype A spatially divided into two major branches from western, southern (A1, A2, and A6), and eastern Africa (A3, A4, and A5) (Supporting Fig. S2),2 which further divided into the subgenotypes and area-specific branches within subgenotypes (A2 Europe,
A5 Haiti). The tMRCA of the founder A2 lineage in Europe was estimated at ∼5.0 ka (95% HPD: 2.7–7.5 ka), suggesting a migration from Africa to Europe. In addition to the A2 subclades that spread outside Africa, A1 strains have been Selleckchem MLN8237 detected in East and South Asia at a similar point in time to the European A2 (Table 2; Supporting Fig. S2). Genotype B also showed geographical clustering into three branches from indigenous Arctic populations (B6), East Asia (B1 and B2), and South-East Asia (B3–B9). However, we found no
evidence relating to the source of this dispersal (Supporting Fig. S3). For genotype C, most subgenotypes (except for C1 and C2 in East Asia) showed a strong geographic pattern in their clustering, suggesting that dispersal occurred through different founders (Near and Remote Oceania, insular Southeast Asia) (Fig. 2). Notably, strains from Remote Oceania (subgenotype C3) clustered with those from Near Oceania click here (C6), matching modern human migrations in this area (Fig. 2).19 However, no conclusions about the source of dispersal can be drawn. Genotype D showed the highest level of spatial complexity. Specifically, except for D4 and D7 isolated from Remote Oceania, Australian Aborigines and Tunisia,15,32 genotype D isolates from Western Asia showed no clustering according to their geographic origin (Fig. 3).33–35 There were several routes of dispersal from Western Asia (Iran, India, Asia Minor) to Europe (D2), South-East Asia (D6), or East Asia (D1) ∼5.0-6.