Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, 1,602 farmers were enrolled, 1,246 from EN and 356 from control villages. Epidemiological and medical histories were taken
and clinical and laboratory examinations performed for kidney function. Blood pressure was measured following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in EN villages was higher than in control (50.8 vs. 46.5%, p = 0.005). There was no difference in overall selleckchem treatment, control of all and treated hypertensives between the villages. In all villages, women were treated more than men (EN 41.6 vs. 28.4%, p < 0.001; control 46.4 vs. 27.3%, p < 0.001), but better control of treated was achieved in men (EN 24.7 vs. 17.4%, p = 0.002; control 29.6 vs. 15.5%, p = 0.002). Women had lower income and level of education than men (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Hypertension is highly prevalent in endemic villages. In all villages, men had better blood pressure control despite being treated less. This finding could be explained by poorer education and income in women. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus are extremely neuroplastic, and the complexity of dendritic branches can be dynamically altered in response to a variety of stimuli, including learning and stress. Recently, the teneurin family of proteins has emerged as an interneuronal and extracellular matrix signaling system
that plays a significant role in brain development and neuronal communication. Encoded on the buy JQ-EZ-05 last exon of the teneurin genes is a new family of bioactive peptides termed the teneurin C-terminal-associated peptides (TCAPs). Previous studies indicate that TCAP-1 regulates axon fasciculation and dendritic morphology
in the hippocampus. This study was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms by which TCAP-1 regulates these changes in the mouse hippocampus. Fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TCAP-1 binds to the pyramidal neurons of the CA2 and CA3, and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. Moreover, FITC-TCAP-1 AR-13324 research buy co-localizes with beta-dystroglycan upon binding to the plasma membrane of cultured immortalized mouse E14 hippocampal cells. In culture, TCAP-1 stimulates ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, stathmin at serine-25 and filamin A at serine-2152. In addition, TCAP-1 induces actin polymerization, increases immunoreactivity of tubulin-based cytoskeletal elements and causes a corresponding increase in filopodia formation and mean filopodia length in cultured hippocampal cells. We postulate that the TCAP-1 region of teneurin-1 has a direct action on the cytoskeletal reorganization that precedes neurite and process development in hippocampal neurons. Our data provides novel evidence that functionally links the teneurin and dystroglycan systems and provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms by which TCAP-1 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics in hippocampal neurons.