\n\nMethods: Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68), respectively, click here admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables
were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression.\n\nResults: The children received a mean rifampin Alisertib mw dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58) body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8) at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 mu g/hour/ml (P = 0.25) 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children,
respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 mu g/hour/ml (P = 0.59) after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8 mu g/ml (P = 0.20) at 1 month after the start of treatment and 4.0 and 4.6 mu g/ml (P = 0.33) after 4 months of treatment. These values are considerably less than the suggested lower limit for 2-hour rifampin concentrations in adults of 8.0 mu g/ml and even 4 mu g/ml\n\nConclusion: Both human
immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children with tuberculosis have very low rifampin serum concentrations after receiving standard rifampin dosages similar to those used in adults. Pharmacokinetic studies of higher dosages of rifampin are urgently needed in children to assist in placing the dosage of rifampin used in childhood on a more scientific foundation.”
“A EVP4593 taxonomic study was carried out on a cellulase-producing bacterium, strain G21(T), isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, slightly curved rods, motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew at 15-40 degrees C and in 0.5-10% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain G21(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a clade with Vibrio furnissii ATCC 350116(T) (97.4 % sequence similarity), V. fluvialis LMG 7894(T) (97.1%) and V. ponticus CECT 5869(T) (96.1%).
Our results suggest that if one of our conservation goals is the facilitation of range-shifting, then current indices of connectivity need to be complemented
by the development and utilization of new indices providing a measure of the ease with which a species spreads across a landscape.”
“Background: see more Radical cystectomy is the standard of care for patients with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer; however, 50% of patients still relapse in distant sites following surgery. A systemic approach is needed to improve outcomes in bladder cancer in the metastatic and pen operative settings.\n\nMethods: We reviewed the literature for use of systemic chemotherapy in bladder cancer and its role in metastatic, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant settings, including patients with comorbidities and renal dysfunction. Current controversies on the role of chemotherapy Alisertib in neoadjuvant and adjuvant
settings as well as the role of novel agents are discussed.\n\nResults: First-line cisplatin-based polychemotherapy improves survival in the metastatic setting and is the standard of care. Approved regimens for subsequent-line therapy do not exist. Chemotherapy has a modest benefit in the neoadjuvant setting, but evidence is insufficient to justify its role in the adjuvant setting despite a possible benefit. Carboplatin cannot be substituted for cisplatin A1331852 in fit patients, and the addition of taxane to a standard regimen cannot be recommended.\n\nConclusions:
Systemic chemotherapy plays a central role in the management of invasive bladder cancer in the metastatic and neoadjuvant settings, but its role in the adjuvant setting remains undefined. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is underutilized and should be routinely used. Pathological downstaging strongly correlates with improved outcomes and may serve as a surrogate end point for survival. An urgent need exists for the development of novel therapeutic agents to improve outcomes.”
“To assess the accuracy of the noninvasive tools, fibrotest (FT) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for assessing liver fibrosis in kidney-transplant patients with chronic hepatitis virus B (HBV) or C (HCV) infection. Thirty-eight consecutive kidney-transplant patients with HCV (n = 26) or HBV (n = 12) underwent liver biopsies followed by a FT and LSM. Liver biopsies gave the following fibrosis-grade distribution using METAVIR scores: F0/F1, n = 10 (26.9%); F2, n = 14 (36.8%), F3, n = 7 (18.42%); F4, n = 7 (18.4%). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for mild fibrosis stage < F2 was 0.69 (0.47-0.91) for the FT and 0.68 (0.45-0.90) for LSM; for severe fibrosis stage F3-F4, they were 0.55 (0.35-0.76) for the FT and 0.69 (0.50-0.87) for LSM.
LV global deformation parameters were measured with speckle tracking echocardiography. Insulin resistance was assessed using 1 h oral glucose tolerance testing. Results: High salt diet led to cardiac hypertrophy and HF, characterized by increased wall thicknesses
and LV volumes as well as reduced deformation parameters. In addition, high salt diet was associated with the development of insulin resistance. Exercise Buparlisib cell line training improved cardiac function, reduced the extent of interstitial fibrosis and reduced insulin levels 60 min post-glucose administration. Conclusions: Even if not fully reversed, exercise training in HF animals improved cardiac function and insulin resistance. Adjusted modalities of exercise training might offer new insights not only as a preventive strategy, but also as a treatment for HF patients. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“More than 100 HPV types have been described, 13 of which are classified as high-risk due to their association with the development of cervical cancer. The intratype genomic diversity of HPV-16 and -18 has been studied extensively, while little data have been generated for other less common high-risk types. The present study explores the nucleotide variability and phylogeny of the high-risk HPV-31, -33, -35, -52, and -58, in samples from
Central Brazil. For this purpose, the LCR and the E6 and L1 genes were sequenced. Several variants of Stem Cell Compound Library cost these HPV types were detected,
some of which have been detected Selleckchem 17DMAG in other parts of the world. Furthermore, new variants of all types examined were characterized in a total of 13 new variants, Based on the E6 and L1 sequences, variants were described comprising conservative and non-conservative amino acid changes. For phylogenetic tree construction, samples characterized in this study were compared to others described and submitted to GenBank previously. The phylogenetic analysis of HPV-31, -33, -35, and -58 isolates did not reveal ethnic or geographical clustering as observed previously for HPV-16 and -18. HPV-35 analysis showed a dichotomic branching characteristic of viral subtypes. Interestingly, four clusters relative to the analysis of HPV-52 isolates were identified, two of which could be classified as Asian and European branches. The genomic characterization of HPV variants is crucial for understanding the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of these viruses and contributes further to studies on their infectivity and pathogenicity. J. Med. Virol. 81:685-692, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) glycoproteins H and L (gH and gL) are required for virus-induced membrane fusion. Expression of gH at the virion or infected cell surface is mediated by the chaperone-like activity of gL. We have previously shown that a region between amino acids 155 and 161 is critical for gL chaperone-like activity.
(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:1466-70)”
“Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins play a key role in many fundamental biological processes, such as transcription, DNA replication and recombination. Very often, these DNA-binding proteins introduce structural changes to the target DNA-binding sites including DNA bending, Silmitasertib concentration twisting or untwisting and wrapping, which in many cases induce a linking number change (Delta Lk) to the DNA-binding site. Due to the lack of a feasible approach, Delta Lk induced by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins has not been fully explored.
In this paper we successfully constructed a series of DNA plasmids that carry many tandem copies of a DNA-binding site for one sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, such as lambda O, LacI, GalR, CRP and AraC. In this case, the protein-induced Delta Lk was greatly amplified and can be measured
experimentally. Indeed, not only were we able to simultaneously determine the protein-induced Delta Lk and the DNA-binding constant for lambda O and GalR, but also we demonstrated that the protein-induced Delta Lk is an intrinsic property for these sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Our results also showed that protein-mediated DNA looping by AraC and LacI can induce a Delta Lk to the plasmid DNA templates. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the protein-induced Delta Lk does not correlate with the protein-induced DNA bending by the DNA-binding proteins.”
“A broad patient-completed SB203580 screening tool in routine FDA approved Drug Library clinical practice in head and neck oncology has merit, but clinicians should be aware that its simplicity could lead to some patients and the detail of their problems being missed. The purpose of this study was to compare
the University of Washington Quality of Life (UWQoL) swallowing domain with the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) in relation to the need for interventions for swallowing around one year after treatment. The group comprised 112 consecutively referred patients to speech and language therapy between January 2007 and August 2009 after primary operation for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A total of 78 patients completed questionnaires (median time of assessment 11.7 months, IQR 6.1-12.2). There were significant (p < 0.001) and moderately strong correlations (r(s) = 0.51-0.62) between the UWQoL swallowing domain score and MDADI subscales and total scores, and also with individual MDADI questions: taking a great deal of effort (r(s) = 0.71); being upset (r(s) = 0.61); and not going out (r(s) = 0.62) were the strongest in regard to swallowing. Use of a gastrostomy tube was associated with worse UWQoL and MDADI scores. In conclusion, patients who score 100 on the UWQoL do not require swallowing to be evaluated further.
As indicated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the concentration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites within the Al2O3 layer changes GDC-0994 during temperature treatments and correlates with the amount of negative fixed charges at the Si/Al2O3 interface, which was detected by Corona Oxide Characterization of Semiconductors. Furthermore, during a temperature treatment at 820 degrees C for 30 min, the initial amorphous
Al2O3 layer crystallize into the c-Al2O3 structure and was enhanced by additional oxygen as was proven by x-ray diffraction measurements and underlined by Density Functional Theory simulations. The crystallization correlates with the increase of the optical density up to 20% while
the final Al2O3 layer thickness decreases Staurosporine ic50 at the same time up to 26%. All observations described above were detected to be Al2O3 layer thickness dependent. These observations reveal novel aspects to explain the temperature induced passivation and degradation mechanisms of Al2O3 layers at a molecular level like the origin of the negative fixe charges at the Si/SiOx/Al2O3 interface or the phenomena of blistering. Moreover, the crystal phase of Al2O3 does not deliver good surface passivation due to a high concentration of octahedral sites leading to a lower concentration of negative fixed charges at the interface. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE) is a heterogeneous condition in which cognitive, sensory and/or motor functions deteriorate as a consequence of epileptic activity, which consists of frequent seizures and/or major interictal paroxysmal activity. There are various causes of EE and they may occur at any age in early childhood. Genetic mutations have been identified to contribute to an increasing
number of children with early onset EE which had been previously Sapitinib considered as cryptogenic. We identified 26 patients with Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (IEE) of unknown etiology despite extensive workup and without any specific epilepsy syndromic phenotypes. We performed genetic analysis on a panel of 7 genes (ARX, CDKL5, KCNQ2, PCDH19, SCN1A, SCN2A, STXBP1) and identified 10 point mutations [ARX (1), CDKL5 (3), KCNQ2 (2), PCDH19 (1), SCN1A (1), STXBP1 (2)] as well as one microdeletion involving both SCN1A and SCN2A. The high rate (42%) of mutations suggested that genetic testing of this IEE panel of genes is recommended for cryptogenic IEE with no etiology identified. These 7 genes are associated with channelopathies or synaptic transmission and we recommend early genetic testing if possible to guide the treatment strategy.
Discussion: Evaluation of the AISS in reduced gravity corroborates observations in the literature regarding the difficulty in maintaining visualization of the surgical field when performing procedures in an air environment. By immersing the surgical field
in fluid we were able to apply suction directly to the hemorrhage and also achieve hemostasis.”
“Coupling the imprint mold structure having a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and a buffer oxide layer (BOL) with a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) resin is investigated for thermal nanoimprint lithography on flexible substrates. The mold structure is SAM/BOL/Cr. Among mTOR inhibitor the buffer oxides tested (SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2), SiO2 results in the most hydrophobic character at the SAM surface of the mold. Water-soluble PVA resin is shown to be an excellent pattern transfer layer
due to its clean release from the hydrophobic mold and strong barrier to SF6 etching during subsequent substrate patterning. The combination of SAM/SiO2/Cr mold structure with PVA resin is demonstrated to produce high quality, defect-free nanopatterns on both rigid silicon and flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyimide substrates. (C) 2011 The Japan Society signaling pathway of Applied Physics”
“Background and objective: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk for lung cancer; the diseases have common etiologies, including cigarette smoking. We aimed to clarify the effectiveness of COPD detection using a regional mass-screening program for lung cancer. Materials and methods: A total of 7,067 residents of Togane, Chiba, Japan received lung cancer screening between May and July, 2011. We defined four groups of possible COPD candidates: group A (n=358), positive smoking history, positive chronic respiratory symptoms; group B (n=766), positive smoking history, positive lifestyle-related disease; group C (n=75), passive smoking history, positive chronic respiratory
symptoms; and group D (n=301), passive smoking history, positive lifestyle-related disease. Candidates underwent on-site pulmonary function testing (PFT). Results: The criteria for MX69 COPD candidates were fulfilled in 1,686 of 7,067 individuals (23.9%); 1,500 participants underwent PFT (89%), and 171 (11.4%) were diagnosed with COPD. The overall COPD detection rate was 2.4%. The frequency of COPD was significantly higher in groups A and B than in groups C and D (P=0.048); however, the distribution of COPD grades was similar among the groups (P=0.372). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified male sex, age 60 years or greater, and positive smoking history as risk factors for COPD. Conclusion: COPD screening using a community-based lung cancer-screening program may be effective for disease detection. Individuals who are 60 years of age or older with a positive smoking history should undergo PFT to detect COPD.
These results underscore the contribution of visual-spatial abilities to the reading acquisition process and identify WS as a potential source of valuable information regarding the role of visual-spatial processing in reading development.”
“Introduction: We present our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massive polycystic kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and review the outcome check details analysis of our experience. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomies done for polycystic kidneys at a university hospital. Our technique included three 12-mm ports with additional one or two 5-mm ports, with usage
of retraction devices, such as the Jarit PEER retractor (J. Jamner Surgical Instruments, Inc, Hawthorne, NY). Results: In total, 39 (left 14, right 25) laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed in 32 patients (male 21, female 11). Surgical indications were varied: to create space for future renal transplant in 21 (54%), to alleviate pain in 16 (41%), to prevent recurrent urosepsis in 2 (5%), to prevent recurrent bleeding which would require transfusions in 2 (5%) and to remove a renal tumour in 1 kidney (2.5%). Four patients had surgery for more than one reason.
The mean age and body mass index were 52.2 years (range: 29-72) and 26.9 LY2835219 kg/m(2) (range: 21.6-34.0), respectively. The mean preoperative hemoglobin and serum creatinine levels were 131.6 g/L (range: Selleck Liproxstatin-1 107-171) and 514 mu mol/L (range: 84-923), respectively; 26 (81%) patients were on dialysis. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 185 minutes (range: 113-287) and 94 mL (range: 10-350), respectively.
No patient required open conversion. The mean specimen size was 24.2 cm (range: 15-38); weight 1515 g (range: 412-4590) and the length of extraction incision was 9.2 cm (range: 6-13). There were 1 Grade 2 2 (2.5%), 2 Grade 3b (5%) and 1 Grade 4a-d (2.5%) complications. The mean length of stay was 4.5 days (range: 3-8). Conclusions: Our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massively enlarged polycystic kidneys in ADPKD is safe and offers all the advantages of minimal access surgery, such as smaller incision, decreased estimated blood loss, excellent cosmesis and faster recovery.”
“In vivo T cell depletion with 100mg alemtuzumab prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in reduced intensity conditioned transplants but is associated with delayed immune reconstitution, a higher risk of infection and relapse. De-escalation studies have shown that a reduced dose of 30mg is as effective as 100mg in preventing GVHD in matched related donor (MRD) transplants. Dose reduction in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants is feasible but the comparative efficacy of alemtuzumab in this setting is not known and opinions vary widely concerning the optimal level of GVHD prophylaxis that should be achieved.
The three strategies yielded different randomisation rates. They also appeared to be interdependent check details and highly effective together. Strategy-specific costs varied from 297 to 857 per randomised participant and represented approximately 10% of the total trial budget. Limitations Because the recruitment strategies were implemented sequentially, it was difficult to measure their independent effects. The cost analysis was performed retrospectively. Conclusions Trial recruiter
expertise and deployment of several interdependent, illness-specific strategies were key factors in achieving rapid recruitment of young children to a community-based randomised controlled trial (RCT). The remote’ recruitment strategy was shown to be more cost-effective compared to community’ and local’ strategies in the context of this trial. Future trialists should report recruitment costs to facilitate a transparent evaluation of recruitment strategy cost-effectiveness.”
“BackgroundThis study investigated which zonal tissue would 3MA be more secure from the risk of fat necrosis between Holm zones II and III and examined the risk factors of fat necrosis in a clinical series of medial row perforator-based deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps. Patients and MethodsA retrospective chart review
was performed for patients undergoing unilateral breast reconstructions with medial row perforator DIEP flaps. Data regarding patients, operation-related characteristics,
and complications including fat necrosis were collected. Fat necrosis was mainly diagnosed by ultrasound examination, learn more and its location was also assessed. ResultsA total of 103 cases were analyzed. Fat necrosis was diagnosed in 13.6% of patients and developed more frequently in zone III (7.8%) than in zone II (4.9%). In risk factor analysis, the inset rate, the weight ratio of the inset flap to harvested flap, was significantly associated with the development of fat necrosis. The flaps with inset rates more than 79% showed 16 times higher risk of fat necrosis than those below 79% in multivariate analysis. The incidence of fat necrosis in zone III was significantly increased in the high inset rate group when compared with the low inset rate group, whereas the incidence in zone II did not change. ConclusionsIn unilateral breast reconstruction using medial row perforator DIEP flaps, fat necrosis developed more frequently in zone III than in zone II, and this tendency was more prominent in high inset rate group. Not transferring excessive contralateral tissue including lateral zone III tissue might be helpful for reducing the risk of fat necrosis. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 35:272-278, 2015.”
“George B, Vollenbroker B, Saleem MA, Huber TB, Pavenstadt H, Weide T.
001). Air-bone gap was improved to smaller than = 10 dB in 38 (88.37%) patients during the postoperative period. Conclusions: Boomerang-shaped chondroperichondrial grafting technique seems
to be a successful Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor alternative in the management of pediatric chronic otitis media cases. It has relatively higher grade graft success rate. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Suicide gene therapy with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) is notable for producing multi-log cytotoxicity in a unique pattern of delayed cytotoxicity in S-phase. As hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor that activates mismatch repair, can increase sensitivity to GCV, we evaluated the role of MLH1, an essential mismatch repair protein, in GCV cytotoxicity. Using HCT116TK (HSV-TK-expressing) colon carcinoma cells that express or lack MLH1, cell-survival studies demonstrated greater GCV sensitivity in the MLH1-deficient cells, primarily at high concentrations. This could not be explained by differences in GCV metabolism, as the less sensitive MLH1-expresssing cells accumulated more GCV triphosphate and incorporated more of the analog into DNA. SiRNA suppression of MLH1 in U251 glioblastoma or SW480 colon carcinoma cells also enhanced sensitivity to high concentrations of GCV. Studies in a pa nel of yeast deletion mutants confirmed the results with MLH1, and further suggested
learn more a role for homologous recombination repair and several cell-cycle checkpoint proteins in GCV cytotoxicity. These data suggest that MLH1 can prevent cytotoxicity with GCV. Targeting mismatch repair-deficient tumors may increase efficacy
of this suicide gene therapy approach to cancer treatment. Cancer Gene Therapy (2009) 16, 683-692; doi:10.1038/cgt.2009.16; published online 20 March 2009″
“Objective-To determine whether procarboxypeptidase B (pCPB)(-/-) mice are susceptible to accelerated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development secondary to unregulated OPN-mediated mural inflammation in the absence of CPB inhibition.\n\nMethods and Results-Thrombin/thrombomodulin cleaves thrombin-activatable LBH589 molecular weight pCPB or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, activating CPB, which inhibits the generation of plasmin and inactivates proinflammatory mediators (complement C5a and thrombin-cleaved osteopontin [OPN]). Apolipoprotein E(-/-) OPN(-/-) mice are protected from experimental AAA formation. Murine AAAs were created via intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) infusion. Increased mortality secondary to AAA rupture was observed in pCPB(-/-) mice at the standard PPE dose. At reduced doses of PPE, pCPB(-/-) mice developed larger AAAs than wild-type controls (1.01 +/- 0.27 versus 0.68 +/- 0.05 mm; P = 0.02 [mean +/- SD]). C5(-/-) and OPN(-/-) mice were not protected against AAA development. Treatment with tranexamic acid inhibited plasmin generation and abrogated enhanced AAA progression in pCPB(-/-) mice.
Moreover it is possible to introduce a phase space parameterized by two quantities related to the Fourier spectra which allow for a clear distinction between a non-homologous set of globular proteins and proteins with solenoid repeats. The DFT method is shown to be competitive with other state of the art methods in the detection of solenoid structures, while improving its performance especially in the identification of periodicities, since it is able to recognize the actual repeat length in most cases. Moreover Cilengitide clinical trial it highlights the relevance of local structural propensities in determining solenoid repeats.”
“BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form
of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data selleck inhibitor to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery.\n\nMETHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including
the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The Free Form modeling system
with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed.\n\nRESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identified and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, click here and different modus operandi were selected successfully.\n\nCONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.”
“Objective: This article serves as an introduction to the history of military environmental exposures, both man-made and naturally occurring. It also discusses exposure hazards of concern to US military members who have served in armed conflict in the past 40+ years. Methods: A review of the literature of the historic exposure concerns as well as those of the recent and current conflicts. Results: In recognition that there have been no significant compilations of articles regarding exposure hazards and concerns faced by US Service members returning from the recent and current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, this dedicated issue of the Journal contains 14 such papers.