67, 95% CI [0 47; 0 95], p = 0 023; Fig  2) Among patients in th

67, 95% CI [0.47; 0.95], p = 0.023; Fig. 2). Among patients in the highest tertile for both b-ALP and sCTX (n = 867), the relative risk reduction with strontium ranelate was 49% (RR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.37; 0.70], p <0.001). The fracture incidences in the strontium ranelate group were comparable, and the magnitude of the treatment

effect was not significantly different between patients in the lowest and highest tertiles for both markers (interaction test p = 0.254). Fig. 2 Incidence of vertebral fractures over 3 years in patients in the lowest (n = 881) LCZ696 cost and highest (n = 867) tertiles for both b-ALP and sCTX. SR strontium ranelate, PL placebo Given the increasing incidence of fractures with increasing bone turnover in patients treated with placebo, the absolute reduction in fracture risk with strontium ranelate was larger for higher tertiles of

bone turnover markers. The number needed to treat (NNT) for 3 years to prevent one first new vertebral fracture ranged from 17 and 14 for the lowest tertiles of b-ALP and sCTX, respectively, to 10 and 9 for the highest tertiles (Table 4). Bone mineral density Lumbar BMD increased progressively during the 3-year analysis period in patients treated with strontium ranelate, but remained virtually unchanged in placebo-treated patients (Fig. 3). The increase in lumbar BMD with strontium ranelate, relative to baseline, at 3 years was 12.5%, 14.6% and 16.5% in b-ALP tertile 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and 12.6%, 13.9% and 16.9% in sCTX tertile 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p < 0.001 in all tertiles; Fig. 3). At each yearly time point, significant between-group differences MK5108 price in favour of strontium ranelate were observed in all tertiles (p < 0.001

vs placebo at all time points for all tertiles of both b-ALP and sCTX). Fig. 3 Changes in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) at 12, 24 and 36 months by tertiles Dynein of b-ALP (upper panel) and sCTX (lower panel) and treatment group. SR strontium ranelate, PL placebo Discussion The main result from this analysis is that 3 years of treatment with strontium ranelate produced similar reductions in the risk of vertebral fracture, relative to placebo, in women with post-menopausal osteoporosis, irrespective of their baseline bone turnover level, consistent with our stated hypothesis. Substantial and significant reductions in fracture risk were seen across all tertiles of pre-treatment b-ALP (a marker of bone formation) and all tertiles of sCTX (a marker of bone resorption), and the size of the treatment effect did not differ significantly between tertiles of either biochemical marker. When women who were in the lowest tertile for both b-ALP and sCTX were compared with those in the highest tertile for both markers, significant relative risk reductions were seen in both BTSA1 price groups, with a similar magnitude between the two groups.

Such a critical time threshold in 3rd day is apparent also in con

Such a critical time threshold in 3rd day is apparent also in connection with the effect of added MRT67307 supplier glucose (see below, Figure 3d). Effect of media The standard appearance of IWP-2 supplier the F phenotype (Figure 2b) was described for colonies grown on nutrient agar NA supplemented with 27 mM glucose (NAG). Replacement of glucose by sorbitol or mannitol at the same concentration allows for a “partial” F pattern. Lower glucose concentrations (0.27 or 2.7 mM) do not support standard patterning; higher concentration (54 mM) deforms the final pattern. Semi-defined medium of comparable composition (TN, or TN with added glucose) supports healthy growth

of well-formed colonies, albeit with a patterning different from the phenotype grown on NAG. Finally, polyethylene glycol (PEG) added to NA in amount mimicking the osmotic load caused by 27 mM glucose did not promote the standard development (Figure 3c). Effect of glucose addition during development At various times after planting on NA, F colonies were “circumscribed” with glucose solution, to achieve its concentration, in the agar, in the range of about 27 mM in the immediate vicinity of the colony. As shown in Figure 3d, the older the colony, the more difficult for it to accomplish the standard appearance Go6983 after glucose addition: after the 3rd day the “struggle towards form” became distorted, and the inner (intermediate) ring did

not appear at all (even if under normal condition it grows until 5th day; see [3]). All these effects of culture conditions are fully reversible in the sense that cell material taken from “atypical” colonies reverts to standard appearance when planted to NAG;

thus, we are dealing with true developmental plasticity rather than selection of variants. Morphotype F: development in the presence of neighbors As already reported, F colonies are very sensitive towards Baf-A1 neighboring bodies on the dish. Closely planted F (or Fw, or F and Fw) colonies grow into a confluent colony with multiple centers and a common rim. An F macula will inhibit normal growth and patterning of F (or Fw) colonies growing in their vicinity, even when planted across a mechanical septum. Finally, heterospecific bodies (colonies or maculae of S. rubidaea or E. coli) were shown to induce formation of a new quality, a special pattern named X structure, characterized by an additional ring round the standard F colony [3, 20]. Here we investigated the formation of X bodies in a closer detail (Figure 4; see also Figure 5a). First, we found that even the M clone (i.e. the rimless derivative of F) can induce the X structure in F. We also found that, in contrast to standard development, there is no critical period of induction: the X structure will appear also on an older, or even adult and non-growing F colony, if a non-F body is planted nearby.

Possibly, a further adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to

Possibly, a further adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to the conditions of aerobic marine environments

in members AZD3965 supplier of the NOR5-1 lineage led to a rapid diversification and speciation process in this PLX-4720 purchase subclade, reflected by a high number of microdiverse 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from marine surface waters. Probably, the optimization of anoxygenic photophosphorylation under aerobic conditions gave representatives of the NOR5-1 lineage a selective advantage, which enabled them to play a significant role in the euphotic zone of coastal marine environments. An evolving specialization to a distinct type of metabolism could be also reflected in the observed reduction of the genome size among photoheterotrophic members of the OM60/NOR5 clade: The genomes of C. litoralis and Rap1red have an estimated size of 4.3 and 4.2 million base pairs (Mb), whereas in the strains HTCC2080, Ivo14T and Himb55, which all belong to the NOR5-1 lineage considerably smaller genome sizes of 3.6, 3.3 and 2.7 Mb, respectively, were found. Previously, it was claimed that reductive genome evolution

in the genera Prochlorococcus and Candidatus Pelagibacter is driven by Selleck FDA approved Drug Library an adaptation to the oligotrophic growth conditions in open ocean waters [40, 41]. Table 3 Presence of genes with taxonomic significance in members of the OM60/NOR5 and BD1-7 clades Signature genes Putative phenotypic trait NOR5-1 NOR5-3 NOR5-4 BD1-7 1 2 3 4 5 6 pufLMC Photosynthetic reaction center + + + + – - pucAB Light-harvesting complex 2 – - + + – - ppsR Repression of pigment synthesis + + + + – - BLUF Response to blue light + + + + + – pop Proteorhodopsin – - – - + + soxB Thiosulfate

oxidation + + + + + – ctaCDGE caa 3 cytochrome c oxidase + + + + + + ccoNOQP cbb 3 cytochrome c oxidase + + + + + + cydAB Cytochrome bd2 quinol oxidase – - – + – - flhOPQRBA Motility – + + + + + pilMNOPQ Type IV pili + + + + + + cphAB Cyanophycin production – - + + – - ppk Polyphosphate storage + + + + + – phaBC Polyhydroxyalkanoate production + – - – - – desC pentoxifylline Oxygen-dependent synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids – + + + + + sod Superoxide dismutase + – + + + – katG Catalase/Peroxidase + + + + + – ureABC Urease – - + + – - bglx Beta-glucosidase – + – + + + paaNBDFGHIJK Aromatic ring cleavage + + – - – - The affiliation of strains to subclades is based on [13]. Strains and accession numbers: 1, Luminiphilus syltensis Ivo14T [GenBank:ACCY01000000]; 2, marine gammaproteobacterium HTCC 2080 [GenBank:AAVV01000000]; 3, Congregibacter litoralis KT71T [GenBank:AAOA01000000]; 4, Congregibacter sp. Rap1red [GenBank:ACCX01000000]; 5, gammaproteobacterium IMCC3088 [GenBank:AEIG01000000]; 6, marine gammaproteobacterium HTCC2143 [GenBank:NZ_AAVT00000000].

R Associated intra- abdomin, Disease Yes No No Yes   Investigat

R. Associated intra- abdomin,. Disease Yes No No Yes   Investigations Laboratory https://www.selleckchem.com/products/tucidinostat-chidamide.html – High WBCs – Elevated CRP Yes Yes No No       – Urine analysis (Findings of UTI) No Yes     Tissue Harmonic U.S. RLQ -Aperistaltic non- learn more compressible blind ended tubular structure Yes No       -Distinct thickened appendicial wall layers Yes No       – Outer diameter > 6 mm Yes No       -Target sign appearance Yes No       -Appendicolith(s) Yes No       -Periappendiceal fluid collection Yes No       – Echogenic Prominent pericecal fat Appendicolith Yes No       – +ve findings in female Adnxae No Yes   Total

score   Interpretation of results: 15 – 25 = highly suggestive of appendicitis. 8 – 14 = Patient needs repeated evaluation for conclusive result. 0 – 7 = the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in not likely. Ultrasonography was performed using linear and curved transducers with ultrasound frequencies ranged between 2.5 and 7.5 MHz, commercially available ultrasound systems (Siemens Sonoline Elegra, Germany). The examination

was performed with both conventional and THI- US. Scanning parameters were optimized for each method, and all images were obtained with use of the same focal zone. A cine playback mode was used to obtain identical images in two standard planes, longitudinal and transverse scans. Images were obtained with the two methods in random sequence to facilitate their masking for the observers. Harmonic images MK-8931 order were acquired at a transmitting frequency of 2.0 MHz and a receiving harmonic bandwidth of 4.0 MHz. Conventional US images were obtained at a frequency of 3.5 MHz, which is the commonly used frequency at abdominal imaging in adults. The harmonic and conventional US modes were switched by means of a toggle switch on the scanner control panel. In both the previous CPGS and the current MCPGS rationale of active watchful waiting in suspected appendicitis was CYTH4 a prudent and safe strategy with the use of at least one time repetition

of conventional US or THI- US with no increase in the risk of perforation (Figures 1,2,3). All appendices were routinely sent for histopathological examination. Figure 1 Acute appendicitis by conventional US in a longitudinal scan using linear transducer with 7.5 MHz frequency showing a thick walled blind ended apristaltic non compressible inflamed appendix.. Figure 2 Acute appendicitis by tissue harmonic imaging sonography (THI) using linear transducer with 7.5 MHz revealed: A. Longitudinal scan showing aperistaltic non compressible blind ended tubular structure with distinct thickened wall layers and diameter > 6 mm. B. Transverse scan showing target sign appearance. Figure 3 Acute appendicitis by tissue harmonic imaging sonography (THI) using linear transducer with 7.5 MHz revealed: A.

(1998) and Laestadius et al (2008) Furthermore, it has to be no

(1998) and Laestadius et al. (2008). Furthermore, it has to be noted that we used as reference the scores from a working see more population in Germany to study functional impairment. There might be differences between the Dutch and the German population with respect to this issue, but we do not have indications for that. Aublet-Cuvelier et al. (2006) performed a follow-up study on the course of work-related upper extremity disorders during three consecutive years at a household appliance assembly company (n = 459). They found a relatively stable annual prevalence of 20–24% and a high annual incidence

(9.8–13.5%) of cases and of annual recoveries (37.0–44.3%). The number of annual recoveries compares well with the favourable course in our study. Feleus et al. (2007)

reported that 42% of a working population (n = 473) with non-traumatic HDAC inhibitor complaints of the arm, neck and shoulder still reported complaints after 6 months. This compares to our finding that complaints had decreased in 33% of the patients after 6 months of follow-up. Cheng et al. (2002) found significant improvements in the SF-36 physical functioning and bodily pain scores after a physical therapy (PT) intervention, but noted a variation in outcomes across injury regions. Patients with elbow disorders needed more physiotherapy care and did not improve in the SF-36 physical role domain compared to shoulder and PXD101 molecular weight wrist/hand groups (Cole and Hudak 1996). We concluded that the results of several studies on the course Microbiology inhibitor of work-related upper

extremity disorders seem to be generally comparable to our findings. An interesting finding in our study was that the average VAS score of the general quality of life did not change, but the VAS quality of life scores with respect to health did increase. This might indicate that the functionality of the upper extremity does not have a major contribution to general quality of life. Reitsma (1999) considered the possibility of follow-up studies linked to registries. He concluded that in most registries follow-up or historical information is not recorded, is short term or is missing and that the role of registries can be extended by creating longitudinal data. This can be done either by record linkage of existing data or by sample projects. This type of information is important in order to set priorities for preventive policy and to monitor the effects of policy interventions. The impact of diseases in terms of severity and duration has to be taken into account in policy making. Furthermore, trends can be monitored not only on the incidence of diseases but also on their course and consequences. If appropriate data can be obtained, the monitoring of economic costs could be added to the set of monitoring instruments. Further research can be performed on the use of registries and related sample projects for preventive policy.

with the highest removal of Cd (42%) The study revealed that the

with the highest removal of Cd (42%). The study NVP-BEZ235 concentration revealed that the selected bacterial species are resistant to Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni (copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA) while the protozoan species were resistant to only Cu, Cr, Co and Ni (copC, chr, cnrA3) with Peranema sp. being the only protozoan species able to resist Co and Ni. Moreover, the removal efficiency of test isolates was revealed, possibly due to biosorptive (passive) uptake and bioaccumulation (active uptake). Similar to the bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis),

Peranema sp. (protozoan species) has a potential application for the bioremediation of heavy metals selleck chemicals llc from domestic and industrial wastewater with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. This study is BMS-907351 datasheet one of the rare studies screening the effects of complex media containing heavy metals on members of two different kingdoms and also screening their heavy-metal removal ability. Further studies could be carried out with regards to these protozoan species, especially Peranema sp., in order to establish the mechanisms used to accumulate and detoxify heavy metals. Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to the National Research Foundation (NRF) for the funding of this project (Grant number: M590). References 1. Savenije HHG, Van der Zaag P: Conceptual framework for the

management of shared river basins; with special reference to the SADC and EU. Water Policy 2000, 2:9–45.CrossRef 2. Van Vuuren L: The state of water in South Africa – Are we heading for a crisis? The Water Wheel 2009,8(5):31–33. 3. Momba MNB, Sibewu M: Survival of somatic and F-RNA

coliphages in treated wastewater effluents and their impact on viral quality of the receiving water bodies in the Eastern Cape Province. J Biol Sci 2009,9(7):648–654.CrossRef 4. Jern WNG: Industrial wastewater treatment. Singapore: Imperial College Press; 2006. 5. Diels L, Van der Lelie N, Bastiaens L: New development in treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 2002, 1:75–82.CrossRef 6. Gikas science P: Single and combined effects of nickel (Ni(II)) and cobalt (Co(II)) ions on activated sludge and on other aerobic microorganisms: a review. J Hazard Mater 2008,159(2–3):187–203.PubMedCrossRef 7. Fatta-Kassinos D, Kalavrouziotis IK, Koukoulakis PH, Vasquez MI: The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. Sci Total Environ 2011,408(19):3555–3563.CrossRef 8. Madoni P, Davoli D, Gorbi G, Vescovi L: Toxic effect of heavy metals on the activated sludge protozoan community. Water Res 1996,30(1):135–141.CrossRef 9. Adeniji A: Bioremediation of arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury. Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Technology Innovation Office; 2004. 10.

Nevertheless, after optimal surgical debulking of the tumor and s

Nevertheless, after optimal surgical debulking of the tumor and standard chemotherapy, patients with advanced disease experience 5-year survival rate [4]. Despite the relative sensitivity of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy, clinical chemotherapeutic treatment often encounters drug resistance [5]. Development of this acquired resistance represents the major limitation to successful treatment. Consequently, there is a pressing need to identify Compound C manufacturer the mechanisms underlying resistance in order to develop novel drugs to re-sensitize tumor cells to primary chemotherapy. Recently, histologic subtype has been recognized as one of the key factors related to chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer. Especially,

clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, which is recognized as a distinct histologic entity in the World Health Organization classification of ovarian tumors, demonstrates a distinctly different clinical behavior from other epithelial ovarian cancers. Several studies showed that patients with clear cell carcinoma had a poor prognosis, partly due to a low response rate to chemotherapy [3–5]. However, little is known about the mechanisms of chemoresistance (intrinsic resistance) of clear cell carcinoma [6]. Response to

taxane/platinum in clear cell carcinoma is still controversial. Reed et al. ARN-509 solubility dmso [7] suggests that common resistance mechanism might be a central determinant for response to current combination therapy

regardless of histologic type. The cytoprotective chaperone protein, clusterin (CLU), has been reported to be involved in numerous physiological processes important for carcinogenesis and tumor growth, including apoptotic cell death, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, cell adhesion, tissue remodeling, lipid transportation, membrane selleck chemicals recycling, and immune system regulation [8]. CLU protein is commonly up-regulated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer cells, and contributes to cancer cell resistance in vitro and in various animal models of cancer by blocking apoptosis [9]. Cytoplasmic CLU is consistently reported to be associated with chemoresistance Resveratrol and it is present in a wide range of advanced cancers as shown in human tumor tissues from prostate [10, 11], renal [12], breast [13], ovarian [14], colon [15], lung [16], pancreas [17], cervix [18], melanoma [19], glioma [20], and anaplastic large cell lymphoma [21]. Recent clinical trials using OGX-011, an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide specifically targeting CLU by complementing CLU mRNA translation initiation site have been launched [22]. OGX-011 potently inhibits CLU expression and enhances the efficacy of anticancer therapies in vitro and in vivo [23, 16]. In addition to a phosphorothioate backbone, OGX-011 incorporates a 2′-methoxyethyl modification to the ribose moiety on the flanking four nucleotides.

2005; Holman and Murray 2005) The first candidate to be a planet

2005; Holman and Murray 2005). The first candidate to be a planet discovered with the TTV technique has a mass of about 15 m  ⊕  (Maciejewski et al. 2010) and is close to the external 2:1 commensurability with

a gas giant Wasp-3b. This observation still waits to be confirmed. Until now there are at least 48 confirmed planets with masses less than 10 m  ⊕ . Apart from one—the Buparlisib solubility dmso least massive pulsar planet mentioned before—the others are super-Earths. Most of them (43) have been discovered by the RV and transit methods, 2 by microlensing and 3 by pulsar chronometry. Among the candidates for planets detected by Kepler there are about 300 objects with sizes corresponding to super-Earths. The confirmation that these are planets is difficult because we know only their size but not their mass which is necessary to classify them as super-Earths. CB-5083 in vivo The preliminary estimates of a quantity of 300 low-mass planets among the 1200 discovered by Kepler seem to be in agreement with the predictions of the percentage

of these planets made on the basis of the distribution of mass and orbital periods around 166 stars similar to the Sun (Howard et al. 2010). There should be a lot of low-mass planets in our Galaxy, so it is worth to intensify the studies of systems containing one, two or more of such planets and to predict their most likely relative positions. Extrasolar Planets Close to Mean-Motion Resonances As we have already mentioned, resonance phenomena are important for shaping up the planetary system configurations.

We have discussed this using our Solar System as an example. The commensurabilities of the orbital periods in the satellite eltoprazine systems of Jupiter and Saturn can be PF-02341066 mw connected with the early history of these system formation (Goldreich 1965). Similarly, the location of Jupiter and Saturn close to the 5:2 resonance can be helpful in the identification of the processes which took place in the past and brought the Solar System in its present configuration (Morbidelli and Crida 2007). The observations of extrasolar systems have confirmed that the commensurabilities could be the key to solve the problem of planetary system formation, because also in these systems stable resonant configurations have been found in abundance. Wright et al. (2011) show that on average every third well studied multi-planet system indicate the commensurability of the orbital periods. The frequency of the occurrence and the character of the mean-motion resonances could be the tracers of the nature of the planetary migration, which is a common phenomenon during the early phases of the planetary system evolution.

One of the essential technologies used to fabricate nanoscale str

One of the essential technologies used to fabricate nanoscale structures is atomic force microscopy (AFM), which is a tip-based nanomechanical machining method that possesses the advantages of precise spatial Crenolanib concentration resolution, in situ imaging, and other unique features, selleck kinase inhibitor including the inexpensive device, relatively easy control and operation [4]. Especially, the AFM-based friction-induced nanomechanical method, which belongs to one of the AFM-based nanofabrication methods, is looked on as a new way for forming complex nanostructures [5, 6]. Ripple patterns can exist over a range of length scales including macroscopic linear ripples on sea and desert sands

created by wind [7], microsized ripples on surfaces of metal substrates produced by ion sputtering [8], and nanoscale ripples on the surfaces of thermoplastic polymers obtained by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip’s reciprocal scanning [9]. In particular, it EPZ-6438 mouse has been found that ripples can be formed on polymer surfaces by single scanning with an AFM tip. Acunto et al. [10, 11] reported that ripple patterns could be formed with a small applied load and single scanning on the surfaces of solvent-containing

polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Gnecco et al. [12] reported that linear ripples with the period of 100 to several hundreds of nanometers can be produced by a heated AFM tip on the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and PSul films, and the ripples could also be obtained with circular scanning. The main mechanisms for the tip-induced ripple formation including Schallamach waves, stick-slip, and fracture-based deformation [9, 13, 14] have been proposed. The Schallamach waves are reviewed as the inability of the rubber surface Selleck Cobimetinib under high shear forces [9]. The stick-slip mechanism is the competition between the tangential force and the critical tangential force [13]. And, the fracture-based deformation is perceived as the existence of the cracks in the deformed materials [14]. All of the mechanisms are just the proposed model. They cannot be clearly conformed and came to an agreement

for explaining the ripples’ formation. So, the mechanism for the process of such ripple formation is still controversial. As mentioned above, just simple ripple-based structures had been formed by AFM tip’s scanning. And, for the novel friction-induced mechanical nanofabrication method, only the protrusive nanostructures including nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas, and nanowards have been produced by the mechanical interaction on the material surface. Until now, complex, ordered nanostructures on polymer surfaces using the friction-induced direct nanofabrication method are not reported [5, 6]. In previous work, we produced nanoscale ripples by scratching a PC surface with an AFM tip with a hard cantilever once [15].

04 6 79 50 5 112 3 Average height [nm] 1 73 3 65 40 96 90 88 RMS

04 6.79 50.5 112.3 Average height [nm] 1.73 3.65 40.96 90.88 RMS roughness click here [nm] 0.49 0.77 9.54 28.30 Thin Ag films were deposited on sapphire substrates with 1-nm Ge wetting layer at different temperatures. Figure 2 shows temperature-dependent plots of surface morphology parameters: ten-point height, average height, and RMS roughness values measured using AFM on 30-nm-thick Ag films. For deposition at temperatures above

170 K, the considered criteria values indicate that virtually any temperature from the range 230 to 350 K can be chosen. In 30-nm-thick films at temperatures below 230 K, the mobility of Ag adatoms is not high enough to assemble a uniform layer. A cohesive force between adatoms is not strongly manifested, and the position of the adatoms is determined by the point of arrival. On the Crenigacestat cell line contrary, at temperatures higher than 350 K, Ag adatoms have enough kinetic Dibutyryl-cAMP supplier energy to migrate to the edge of the nearest island or even build up the next layer on top of it. The ten-point height criterion is crucial for assessment of scattering losses as both peaks and hollows act as strong scatterers. Deteriorated

surfaces of Ag films deposited at temperatures below 170 K are connected with evaporating onto substrates covered with water ice nanocrystals. Figure 2 Three surface morphology parameters measured using AFM on 3 × 3 μm 2 area of 30-nm-thick Ag layers. Thin Ag films were deposited on sapphire substrates with Ge wetting monolayer at temperatures in the range 90 to 400 K. Effect of water ice crystallization Cooling leads to the formation of water ice crystals on substrates at temperatures Acetophenone lower than sublimation phase transition at pressures below the water triple point in its phase diagram. The recently formulated new sublimation-pressure empirical equation valid

in the range from 50 K and 1.9 × 10−34 MPa to the triple point, where all three phases of water are in equilibrium at T t = 273.16 K and p t = (611.657 ± 0.010) Pa, is composed of three terms [25] (1) where π = p subl/p t and θ = T/T t. The equation coefficients a i and b i are given in Table 2. Table 2 Sublimation-pressure empirical equation coefficients Coefficient Value a 1 −0.212144006 × 102 a 2 0.273203819 × 102 a 3 −0.610598130 × 101 b 1 0.333333333 × 10−2 b 2 0.120666667 × 101 b 3 0.170333333 × 101 A p-T diagram with phase-boundary curves separating solid and gaseous forms of water within the temperature range 140 to 170 K is shown in Figure 3. It shows the sublimation-pressure curve for pressures ranging from 10−5 Torr down to 10−9 Torr, at which metals are deposited in e-beam evaporators. At 10−8 Torr, the sublimation temperature is 144.6 K, and at 10−7 Torr, it is 152.9 K. Figure 3 Phase transitions of water. The p-T diagram is calculated with the new sublimation-pressure empirical equation valid in the range from 50 K and 1.9 × 10−40 Pa to temperature and pressure values at the triple point [25].