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“Introduction There has been in recent years a growing
awareness and media coverage about psychological harassment at work and its devastating impact on victims, such as stress or burnout syndromes (Tarquinio et al. 2004) (Bowling and Beehr 2006; Hansen et al. 2006). Physical forms of workplace violence have been investigated as well, but there has been comparatively little
research on consequences of physical assaults against workers. As a matter of fact, many studies and reviews have concentrated on identifying risk factors and assessing the prevalence of this phenomenon (Barling et al. 2009; Dillon 2012). The healthcare setting has drawn particular attention (Gillespie et al. 2010; Kowalenko et al. 2012; Taylor and Rew 2011). Acts of physical violence at work are defined as assaults carried out by one or several perpetrators, by members of the same organization as the victim (internal violence) or by “outsiders” CHIR-99021 supplier (external violence) such as clients and patients. External forms of physical violence are more common than internal ones and affect more often, but not exclusively, “frontline staff” in the services industry (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions 2007). Workplace violence seems to become more pervasive throughout the world and represents a growing health and security challenge for many organizations. An increase in the prevalence of physical workplace violence (from 4 to 6 % in the past 12 months) was reported in the European Working Conditions Surveys from 1995 to 2005 in Northern Europe. The same study showed that external physical violence was more frequent than internal physical violence. Substantial differences were observed according to the type of occupation.