, 2011). The largest subset of USA300 genes predicted to be under positive selection (45%) were involved with metabolism, whereas only 7% encoded components of the cell envelope. This phenomenon cannot be explained by the fact that metabolic genes make up a large proportion CHIR-99021 solubility dmso of the core genome because this same study showed that in USA200, the most prominent class of genes undergoing positive selection were those encoding cell envelope components (a third of all genes with elevated dN/dS) (Sivaraman & Cole, 2009; Holt et al., 2011). An independent study verified that all of the metabolic genes
in USA300 exhibiting forward selection were completely conserved among 10 sequenced Doxorubicin order USA300 genomes (Kennedy et al., 2008). Moreover, data from this same study showed that, while relatively few SNPs were found among 10 different USA300 genomes, genes encoding cell envelope proteins more commonly exhibited high dN/dS ratios (57% of all genes with multiple nonsynonymous substitutions) (Kennedy et al., 2008). Thus, the peculiar overrepresentation of S. aureus metabolic genes among those undergoing positive selection is only evident when comparing USA300 with non-USA300 genomes implying that USA300 clones in general seem to be adapting to disproportionately high selective pressures at the metabolic
level. It is possible that the resulting adaptive mutations in the overall metabolism of USA300 directly contribute to the evolutionary success of this clone. For instance, it has been observed that USA300 clones simply clonidine grow faster than any other tested S. aureus isolate (Herbert et al., 2010). Taken together, it would appear that USA300 is more metabolically fit and/or adaptable than other S. aureus lineages. This
may provide an advantage when competing for limiting nutrients with endogenous microbial communities as well as contribute to severe disease given a rapid growth rate within sterile sites of the body. Further inspection in our laboratory revealed that USA300 clones have growth advantages when metabolizing many different carbon sources (Table 1). In general, USA300 clones exhibited higher growth rates than other clones when cultivated on nutrients that are abundant in human sweat and skin (Harvey et al., 2010), consistent with the high prevalence of skin/soft tissue infections associated with USA300 clones. But can a relatively small set of amino acid changes in metabolic genes really account for such drastic growth differences? Laboratory adaptation of Escherichia coli to growth on lactate resulted in strains that exhibited nearly twice the growth rate on lactate alone (Hua et al., 2007). These adapted strains exhibited major alterations in metabolic flux capacity through gluconeogenic and pyruvate catabolic pathways, yet none of these changes were because of altered gene expression.