“The eastern and southern Africa (ESA) region is considere


“The eastern and southern Africa (ESA) region is considered as a centre of secondary diversity for pigeonpea. Accessions (297) of pigeonpea landraces were collected from major production areas in four countries in the region and evaluated for desirable agronomic traits, particularly resistance to fusarium wilt and market-preferred

traits. Selected germplasm was utilized in the regional breeding program aimed at genetic enhancement of pigeonpea. Five improved long-duration (LD) cultivars that are highly resistant to fusarium wilt and have large (100-grain weight >15.0 g) grains were developed. Similarly, six early maturing medium-duration (MD) cultivars (averaging 2.5 t/ha) for production in the high latitude areas in the region and three MD cultivars that are able to ratoon, were developed. Seed of pre-released cultivars SB203580 that are preferred by the farmers was distributed widely in the region in order to facilitate adoption. Consequently, the selleck products productivity of pigeonpea and food security in the region improved significantly.”
“Clinics in developing nations often use paper-based records that are hard to manage or are inefficient. Electronic medical records (EMR) systems could help increase

the efficiency and efficacy of these clinics. Even though some EMR systems have been developed for developing countries, they lack customizability. This paper gives some background information about EMR systems: how they are used in developed countries, and how FileMaker, an off-the-shelf database software, could be used to rapidly deploy EMR systems in clinics and hospitals of developing

countries. An existing EMR database developed by Banner Alzheimer’s Institute serves as a proof of concept that FileMaker is a viable EMR solution.”
“Background: Coadministration of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHP-CCBs) with statins (or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) is common for patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. To reduce the risk of myopathy, in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety Communication set a new dose limitation for simvastatin, for Chk inhibitor patients taking simvastatin concomitantly with amlodipine. However, there is no such dose limitation for atorvastatin for patients receiving amlodipine. The combination pill formulation of amlodipine/atorvastatin is available on the market. There been no systematic review of the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile of DHP-CCBs with statins, the underlying mechanisms for DDIs of different degree, or the corresponding management of clinical risk. Methods: The relevant literature was identified by performing a PubMed search, covering the period from January 1987 to September 2013.


“The fundamental step of learning transcriptional regulati


“The fundamental step of learning transcriptional regulation mechanism is to Epacadostat ic50 identify the target genes regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Despite numerous target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing technology (ChIP-seq) assays, it is not possible to infer function from binding alone in vivo. This is equally true in one of the best

model systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), where regulation often occurs through diverse TF binding features of transcriptional networks identified in modENCODE. Here, we integrated ten ChIP-seq datasets with genome-wide expression data derived from tiling arrays, involved in six TFs (HLH-1, ELT-3, PQM-1, SKN-1, CEH-14 and LIN-11) with tissue-specific and four TFs (CEH-30, LIN-13, LIN-15B and MEP-1) with broad expression patterns. In common, TF bindings within 3 kb upstream of or within its target gene for these ten studies showed significantly elevated level of expression

as opposed to that of non-target controls, indicated that these sites may be more likely to be functional through up-regulating its target genes. Intriguingly, expression of the target genes out of 5 kb upstream of their transcription start site also showed high levels, which was consistent with the results of following network component analysis. Our study has identified similar transcriptional regulation mechanisms of tissue-specific or broad expression TFs in C. elegans using Pevonedistat nmr ChIP-seq and gene expression data. It may also provide a novel insight Nirogacestat purchase into the mechanism of transcriptional regulation not only for simple organisms but also for more complex species.”
“BACKGROUND After lung transplantation, increased left ventricular (LV) filling can lead to LV failure, increasing the risk of post-operative complications and mortality. LV dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized

by a reduced LV ejection fraction and impaired diastolic function. OBJECTIVES The pathophysiology of LV dysfunction in PAH is incompletely understood. This study sought to assess the contribution of atrophy and contractility of cardiomyocytes to LV dysfunction in PAH patients. METHODS LV function was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, LV biopsies were obtained in 9 PAH patients and 10 donors. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and force-generating capacity of isolated single cardiomyocytes was investigated. RESULTS Magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed a significant reduction in LV ejection fraction in PAH patients, indicating a reduction in LV contractility. The CSA of LV cardiomyocytes of PAH patients was significantly reduced (w30%), indicating LV cardiomyocyte atrophy. The maximal force-generating capacity, normalized to cardiomyocyte CSA, was significantly reduced (w25%).

communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-l

communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-like gene expression.”
“Magnetoacoustic www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a noninvasive electrical conductivity imaging approach that measures ultrasound wave induced by magnetic stimulation, for reconstructing the distribution of electrical impedance in a biological tissue. Existing

reconstruction algorithms for MAT-MI are based on the assumption that the acoustic properties in the tissue are homogeneous. However, the tissue in most parts of human body has heterogeneous acoustic properties, which leads to potential distortion and blurring of small buried objects in the impedance images. In this study, we proposed a new algorithm for MAT-MI to image the impedance distribution in tissues with inhomogeneous acoustic speed distributions. With a computer head model constructed from MR images of a human subject, a series of numerical simulation experiments were

conducted. The present results indicate that the inhomogeneous acoustic properties of tissues in terms of speed variation can be incorporated in MAT-MI imaging.”
“Background. There is short-term evidence for treatment of cervicogenic dizziness with Mulligan sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) but no evidence for treatment with Maitland mobilizations.\n\nObjective. selleck products The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of SNAGs and Maitland mobilizations for cervicogenic dizziness.\n\nDesign. A double-blind, parallel-arm randomized P505-15 controlled trial was conducted.\n\nSetting. The study was conducted at a university in Newcastle, Australia.\n\nParticipants. Eighty-six people with cervicogenic dizziness were the study participants.\n\nInterventions. Included

participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 3 interventions: Mulligan SNAGs (including self-administered SNAGs), Maitland mobilizations plus range-of-motion exercises, or placebo.\n\nMeasurements. The primary outcome measure was intensity of dizziness Other outcome measures were: frequency of dizziness, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), intensity of pain, and global perceived effect (GPE).\n\nResults. Both manual therapy groups had reduced dizziness intensity and frequency posttreatment and at 12 weeks compared with baseline. There was no change in the placebo group. Both manual therapy groups had less dizziness intensity posttreatment (SNAGs: mean difference=-20.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=-33.6, -7.7; mobilizations: mean difference=-15.2, 95% CI=-27.9, -2.4) and at 12 weeks (SNAGs: mean difference=-18.4, 95% CI=-31.3, -5.4; mobilizations: mean difference=-14.4, 95% CI=-27.4, -1.5) compared with the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, both the SNAG and Maitland mobilization groups had less frequency of dizziness at 12 weeks.


“Fanconi anemia is a fatal, hereditary chromosome instabil


“Fanconi anemia is a fatal, hereditary chromosome instability syndrome of early childhood with progressive pancytopenia and cancer-proneness. Hypersensitivity to alkylating agents points to DNA repair inefficiency. Excess reactive oxygen intermediates and hypersensitivity to oxygen, all features of Fanconi anemia cells, give evidence for a disturbed oxidative

metabolism. Here, we report that expression of the inducible heme oxygenase-1, an essential antioxidative defense protein, is impaired in Fanconi anemia cells and can be reinstated with the transfection of Fanconi A wild-type cDNA. CGP 41251 A causative interaction of Fanconi anemia proteins with transcription of selected proteins is indicated. The results enlighten the oxygen sensitivity in Fanconi anemia.”
“Objective\n\nThe aim of the present study was

to investigate the long-tern? efficacy of a 3-week intensive residential multidisciplinary non-pharmacological treatment program (including individually prescribed and monitored aerobic exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy) on fibromyalgia symptoms and aerobic fitness.\n\nMethods\n\nTwenty-five women with fibromyalgia participated in six experimental sessions (pre-admission, immediately before and immediately after the treatment, and to 2, 5 and 12 months afterwards) in which they underwent clinical, psychophysical and psychological examinations: pain intensity CDK inhibitors in clinical trials (VAS), pain area (percentage of total body surface), deep pressure pain threshold at 18 tender point sites measured with a pressure algometer, an incremental step test with blood lactate determination and calculation of the individual intensity of exercise corresponding to 2 mM of lactate concentration (W(2), index of aerobic fitness). Depression and coping were evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Brief Pain Coping Inventory (BPCI), respectively.\n\nResults\n\nPain intensity,

pain area and number of positive tender points were significantly reduced up to 12 months, while deep pressure pain threshold and W2 increased. CES-D score decreased until two months. Among the 18 items of the BCPI, only item 3 (“physical exercise/stretching”) selleck products changed significantly, increasing until 12 months.\n\nConclusion\n\nIn fibromyalgia patients, whose symptoms before treatment were constant, a 3-week intensive residential multidisciplinary treatment program showed one-year efficacy in improving pain and aerobic fitness. The acquisition of physical exercise as a coping strategy for chronic pain acceptance could explain the long-term effects of our brief treatment.”
“Higher rates of hip fracture and all fractures combined have been observed in urban compared with rural areas, but whether there are urban-rural differences in distal forearm fracture rates is less studied.

FAK/Akt pathway activation following integrin 3 (ITG3) engagement

FAK/Akt pathway activation following integrin 3 (ITG3) engagement mediated the migration and invasion of IM-R Adh cells, whereas persistent activation of ERK counteracted BCR-ABL inhibition by imatinib, promoting cell adhesion-mediated resistance.”
“Background: Important public health and clinical issues remain unanswered concerning disease-related knowledge and caregiving experiences in dementia. The aim of this study is to describe

these dimensions in Portuguese clinical settings and analyze the link between knowledge and burden, and also between knowledge and positive caregiving experiences.\n\nMethods: We studied a non-randomized sample of 116 caregivers of outpatients with ICD10-DCR diagnosis of dementia. Comprehensive assessments included Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Caregiving Activity Survey (CAS), Positive Aspects PARP inhibitor of Caregiving (PAC) and General Health Questionnaire-12 www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html (GHQ). Portuguese translations for DKQ, ZBI and PAC scales had been developed; validity aspects were documented, as well as test-retest reliability coefficients for ZBI (ICC = 0.93) and PAC (ICC = 0.85).\n\nResults: Most caregivers were close relatives, female and living with the patient.

Although positive aspects of care were reported, burden and distress levels were moderate to high. Knowledge needs were not striking. Distress was moderately correlated to burden, but no associations were found between caregivers’ knowledge and ZBI, PAC or GHQ. DKQ scores did not predict PAC nor ZBI scores. A relationship was found between ZBI, as

dependent variable, and PAC, GHQ and CAS.\n\nConclusions: A large proportion of caregivers in buy Flavopiridol this sample, albeit informed about dementia, were at risk of high burden and distress. Knowledge about dementia may not be protective of burden er se, nor did it influence positive aspects of caregiving.”
“The quality issues of woody feed stocks usually report changes in the moisture content, heating value or dry matter, but these factors are rarely summed and reported as changes in energy densities for a given feed stock. This paper reports the results of ten whole-tree and two stem wood storage field trials on energy densities. The material consisted of eight Scots pine (P. sylvestris), and four downy birch (B. pubescence) trials, all after the first thinnings. Other factors studied were the length of storage, pile cover and seasoning in the stand. The two variables under scrutiny were the basic density and moisture content. It was shown that even a good degree of drying could not counterbalance the reduction in the basic density. The Scots pine feed stocks dried well, and the basic density losses were less than those of downy birch. As a result, the pine feed stocks increased in energy density from 0.7 to 17.6% over the trial period, whereas all of the birch feed stocks suffered losses from -3.


“A new red algal species, Crassitegula laciniata (Sebdenia


“A new red algal species, Crassitegula laciniata (Sebdeniaceae, Sebdeniales), was described from recent collections made on offshore Bermuda reef habitats, and it was distinguished morphologically

and molecularly (COI-5P, LSU gene sequences) from congeners in Bermuda and Australia. In addition, four other species were reported as new members of the growing Bermuda macroalgal flora: the chlorophytes Anadyomene lacerata and Codium carolinianum and the rhodophytes Gracilaria occidentalis and Predaea goffiana.”
“A 29-year-old male patient was admitted into hospital with the main complaint of progressive visual disturbance. Both CT SCAN and MRI demonstrated a cystic-solid contrast-enhancing sellar-suprasellar

mass with obvious calcification. Histopathological examination of the first resected specimen showed a typical appearance of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html patient received gamma knife therapy after his first operation because of partial tumor removal. He experienced Smad inhibitor two relapses in the subsequent 2 years, for which only surgical resection was performed. The later histopathology presented malignant appearance with tumor cells moderate to severe pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, increased nuclear cytoplastic ratio, high mitotic activity (30/10 high power fields) and focal coagulative necrosis. The patient died 9 months after identification of histologic malignancy. Clinical and histopathological features, biological behavior of one case of malignant craniopharyngioma were discussed, with a brief review of the relevant literature.”
“Diffusion tensor imaging is highly sensitive to the microstructural integrity of the brain and has uncovered significant abnormalities following traumatic brain injury

not appreciated through other methods. It is hoped that this increased sensitivity will aid in the detection and prognostication in patients with traumatic injury. However, the pathological substrates of such changes are poorly understood. Specifically, decreases in fractional anisotropy derived from diffusion tensor imaging are consistent with axonal injury, myelin injury or both in white matter fibres. In contrast, in both humans and animal models, increases mTOR inhibitor review in fractional anisotropy have been suggested to reflect axonal regeneration and plasticity, but the direct histological evidence for such changes remains tenuous. We developed a method to quantify the anisotropy of stained histological sections using Fourier analysis, and applied the method to a rat controlled cortical impact model to identify the specific pathological features that give rise to the diffusion tensor imaging changes in subacute to chronic traumatic brain injury. A multiple linear regression was performed to relate the histological measurements to the measured diffusion tensor changes.

59mg/ml) over the 12 hours However, the number of lymphocytes fl

59mg/ml) over the 12 hours. However, the number of lymphocytes fluctuated widely between 0.08 +/- 0.03×10(6)/ml and 12.17 +/- 6.58×10(6)/ml. This modified animal model of thoracic duct lymph collection avoids influences of lipid intake, general anesthesia, or limited activity of animals on experimental outcomes, and therefore more accurately reflects lymph flow and composition under normal physiological

conditions.”
“The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) has received much attention. By immobilizing [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) on an electrode surface, solid-state ECL has several advantages over solution-phase ECL, such as reduced amounts of costly reagent and a simplified experimental design. Herein, different types of solid-state ECL sensors were fabricated and the performances of paraffin oil EGFR inhibitor and two ionic liquids (ILs) as the binders were compared for the construction of solid-state ECL. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CCD camera, UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy, electrochemistry and ECL were applied to characterize and evaluate the performance of

the solid-state composites. According to the obtained results, Ru-graphite/IL octyl pyridinium hexaflurophosphate (OPPF6) was introduced as a new solid-state ECL with excellent properties such as simple preparation, low background selleck chemicals llc current, fast electron-transfer rate and good reproducibility and stability. Moreover, for a study of the effect of carbon structure on the performance of the electrode, graphite was replaced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Ru-MWCNT/OPPF6 was constructed and its efficiency was compared with Ru-graphite/OPPF6 composite electrode. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background and purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is as important as survival to Nepicastat order patients with heart failure (HF).

Perceptions of loss of control are common in HF and negatively affect HRQOL. Knowledge of modifiable factors associated with perceived control could guide the development of interventions to improve perceived control and thus HRQOL. Accordingly, this study examined factors related to perceived control and the relationship between perceived control and HRQOL. Methods: Patients (N=232, mean age 6112, 67% male, 78% Caucasian) provided data on HRQOL (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire), perceived control (Control Attitudes Scale-Revised), and factors possibly associated with perceived control (knowledge and barriers (Heart Failure Knowledge and Barriers to Adherence Scale), attitudes (Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support)). Patients also provided data on depressive symptoms, which were a covariate of HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data.

The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation produc

The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation product from glucose (up to 1.9 mol-H-2/mol-xylose [33%]). The strain AK17 tolerated exogenously added ethanol up to

4% (v/v). The ethanol and hydrogen production performance from glucose by a co-culture of the strains. AK15 and AK17 was studied in a continuous-flow bioreactor at 60 degrees C. Stable and continuous ethanol and hydrogen co-production was achieved selleck chemicals llc with ethanol yield of 1.35 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose, and with the hydrogen production rate of 6.1 mmol/h/L (H-2 yield of 0.08 mol-H-2/mol-glucose). PCR-DGGE anlaysis revealed that the AK17 became the dominant bacterium in the bioreactor. In conclusion, strain AK17 is a promising strain for the co-production of ethanol and hydrogen with a wide substrate utilization spectrum, relatively high ethanol tolerance, and ethanol yields among the highest reported for thermoanaerobes.”
“Anaphylaxis

is a life-threatening immediate hypersensitivity GSK690693 ic50 reaction triggered by antigen capture by immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) on mast cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of mast cell activation is not completely understood. Here we identify an immunoglobulin-like receptor, Allergin-1, that contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like domain, and show it was preferentially expressed on mast cells. Mouse Allergin-1 recruited the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 and the inositol phosphatase SHIP. Coligation of Allergin-1 and FceRI suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells. Moreover, mice deficient in Allergin-1 developed enhanced

Staurosporine cost passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. Thus, Allergin-1 suppresses IgE-mediated, mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis in mice.”
“Polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer include those in three genes encoding major secretory products of the prostate: KLK2 (encoding kallikrein-related peptidase 2; hK2), KLK3 (encoding prostate-specific antigen; PSA), and MSMB (encoding beta-microseminoprotein). PSA and hK2, members of the kallikrein family, are elevated in sera of men with prostate cancer. In a comprehensive analysis that included sequencing of all coding, flanking, and 2 kb of putative promoter regions of all 15 kallikrein (KLK) genes spanning approximate to 280 kb on chromosome 19q, we identified novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and genotyped 104 SNPs in 1,419 cancer cases and 736 controls in Cancer Prostate in Sweden 1, with independent replication in 1,267 cases and 901 controls in Cancer Prostate in Sweden 2. This verified prior associations of SNPs in KLK2 and in MSMB (but not in KLK3) with prostate cancer. Twelve SNPs in KLK2 and KLK3 were associated with levels of PSA forms or hK2 in plasma of control subjects. Based on our comprehensive approach, this is likely to represent all common KLK variants associated with these phenotypes.

We propose that pathological inclusions containing RNA-binding pr

We propose that pathological inclusions containing RNA-binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS, might arise from SGs and discuss how SGs might contribute

to neurodegeneration via toxic gain or loss-of-function mechanisms.”
“The characterization of nematode-effective strains and cry genes in the Iranian Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) collection (70 isolates) is presented. Characterization was based on PCR analysis using 12 specific primers for cry5, cry6, cry12, cry13, cry14, and cry21 genes encoding proteins active against nematodes, crystal morphology, and protein band patterns Cl-amidine mouse as well as their nematicidal activity on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and two free-living nematodes (Chiloplacus tenuis and Acrobeloides enoplus). PCR results with primers for these genes showed that 22 isolates (31.5%) contain a minimum of one nematode-active cry gene. Strains containing the cry6 gene were the most abundant and represent 22.8% of the isolates. Bt strains harboring cry14 genes were also abundant (14.2%). cry21 and cry5 genes were less abundant, found in 4.2% and 2.8% of the strains, respectively. In total, six different nematode-active cry gene profiles were detected

in this collection. Four isolates did not show the expected PCR product size for cry5, cry6, and cry21 genes; they might contain potentially novel insecticidal crystal protein genes. Twenty-two Bt isolates containing nematode-active cry genes were selected for preliminary bioassays on M. incognita. Based on these bioassays, four isolates were selected for PD173074 datasheet detailed bioassays. Isolates YD5 and KON4 at 2 x 10(8) CFU/mL concentrations showed 77% and 81% toxicity on M. incognita, respectively. The free-living nematodes C. tenuis and A. enoplus were more susceptible and the highest mortality was observed within 48 h of incubation at all of the concentrations tested. Maximum mortality was recorded for isolates SN1 and KON4 at 2 x 10(8)

CFU/mL concentrations and resulted in 68% and 77% adults deaths of C. tenuis and 68% and 72% for A. enoplus, respectively. Our results showed that PCR is a useful technique for toxicity prediction of nematicidal Bt isolates.”
“The crystal structure of the title Schiff base compound, C16H16N2O3, is Kinase Inhibitor Library high throughput characterized by chains of molecules linked by intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds running along the c axis. Further stabilization is provided by weak C-H center dot center dot center dot O contacts. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 38.31 (7)degrees.”
“PURPOSE:To determine technical success, technique effectiveness, complications, and survival after laser ablation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven consecutive patients (65 men. and 22 women; mean age, 62.8 years) with 180 liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma were included between 1998 and 2005.

Results: We found 1359 incident AF events in 100 074 person-y

\n\nResults: We found 1359 incident AF events in 100 074 person-years Selleckchem LY2603618 of follow-up. Unadjusted 5-year event rates differed by cohort (AGES, 12.8 cases/1000 person-years; CHS whites, 22.7 cases/1000 person-years; and FHS, 4.5 cases/1000 person-years) and by race (CHS African Americans, 18.4 cases/1000 person-years). The strongest risk factors in all samples were age and heart failure. The relative risks for incident AF associated with risk factors were comparable across cohorts and race groups. After recalibration for baseline incidence and risk factor distribution, the Framingham algorithm, reported in C statistic, performed reasonably well in all samples:

AGES, 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.71); CHS whites, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.66-0.70); and CHS African Americans, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71). Risk factors combined in

the algorithm explained between 47.0% (AGES) and 63.6% (FHS) of the population-attributable risk.\n\nConclusions: Risk of incident AF in community-dwelling whites and African Americans can be assessed reliably by routinely available and potentially modifiable clinical variables. Seven risk factors accounted for up to 64% of risk.”
“By means of a multicentre retrospective study based on the failure of 418 aseptic learn more unicondylar knee arthroplasties (UKA) our aims were to present the different types of revision procedure used in failed UKAs, to establish a clear operative strategy for each type of revision and to better define the indications for each type of revision.\n\nAseptic loosening was the principal cause of failure

(n = 184, 44 %) of which 99 cases were isolated tibial loosening (23.5 % of the whole series and 54 % of all loosening), 25 were isolated femoral loosening (six and 13.6 %) and 60 were both femoral and tibial loosening (14.3 and 32.6 %). The next most common causes of failure were progression of arthritis (n = 56, 13.4 %), polyethylene wear (n = 53, 12.7 %), implant positioning errors (n = 26), technical difficulties (n = six) and implant failure (n = 16, 3.8 % of cases). Data collection was performed online using OrthoWave PX-478 manufacturer (TM) software (Aria, Bruay Labuissiere, France), which allows collection of all details of the primary and revision surgery to be recorded.\n\nA total of 426 revisions were performed; 371 patients underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (87 %), 33 patients (7.7 %) were revised to an ipsilateral UKA, 11 (2.6 %) patients underwent contralateral UKA (ten) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (one) and 11 patients (2.6 %) underwent revision without any change in implants.\n\nBefore considering a revision procedure it is important to establish a definite cause of failure in order to select the most appropriate revision strategy.