An alternative approach is to preclude IFN production by disarmin

An alternative approach is to preclude IFN production by disarming or degrading the transcription factors involved in the expression of IFN, such as interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)/IRF7, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), or ATF-2/c-jun, or by inducing a general block on host cell transcription. Viruses also oppose IFN signalling, both by disturbing the type I IFN receptor and by impeding JAK/STAT signal transduction upon IFN receptor engagement.

In addition, the global expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) can be obstructed via interference with epigenetic signalling, and specific ISGs can also be selectively targeted for inhibition. Finally, some viruses disrupt IFN responses by co-opting negative regulatory systems, whereas others use antiviral mechanisms drug discovery to their own advantage. Here, we review recent developments in this field. Despite almost constant exposure to pathogens, mammals are only rarely infected to the point where disease Trichostatin A purchase becomes evident. The first line of defence consists of the interferon (IFN) family of soluble cytokines. The IFNs have anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-viral and immunomodulatory functions[1] through the expression of more than 300 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs).[2] There are three classes of IFNs which are produced by different cell types, bind unique receptors and have distinctive biological actions.[3] Here,

we focus on the type I IFNs, which are produced 4��8C by most cell types and have potent, inherent antiviral activity.[4] The type I IFN response is bimodal: first, detection of an invading virus leads to IFN production and secretion and second, IFN acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner to induce ISGs, the products of which work collectively to disrupt viral replication and

spread. To generate a productive infection, viruses must overcome antiviral responses, and accordingly, every aspect of these defences is targeted for inhibition. Here, we describe the IFN response and viral immune evasion strategies. As this topic has been extensively reviewed previously, we will focus on the most recent advances. In the first step of the biphasic type I IFN response, virus is detected through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), highly conserved structural features found in broad classes of pathogens. PAMPs are sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including the toll-like receptors (TLRs).[5] The TLRs recognize viral components including glycoproteins and nucleic acids such as dsRNA or CpG DNA. Via their cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, TLRs recruit TIR-containing adaptors such as MyD88, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF), Mal and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), leading to the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) (Fig. 1). Recently, several viruses have been found to disrupt TLR signalling by interfering with the adaptor molecule TRIF.

We compared changes in fluorescence ratios when a triggering dose

We compared changes in fluorescence ratios when a triggering dose of 1 ng DNP-HSA was added to non-desensitized cells, to desensitized cells and to cells that had not been sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. DNP-desensitized cells showed 90% inhibition of calcium mobilization (see Fig. 2B), indicating that calcium-dependent

events are impaired during desensitization. Because calcium mobilization is key to arachidonic acid metabolization and generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, we studied arachidonic acid products. Thirty minutes after 1 ng DNP-HSA challenge, cell supernatant was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC); PS-341 mw cysteinyl leukotriene C4 (LTC4), leucotriene B4 (LTB4), and 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z, 8E, 10E-trienoic acid (12-HHT) were identified with retention times of 21.4, 23.7 and 24.4 min, respectively, with prostaglandin B2 (PGB2) as an internal standard. In contrast, LTB4, LTC4 and 12-HHT were not detected in rapidly desensitized cell supernatants or in cells treated with 1 ng HSA (see Fig. 2C). This result indicates a lack of arachidonic acid metabolization

with desensitization. Other proinflammatory mediators are released from mast cells upon activation, such as TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. Pre-formed TNF-α is released upon IgE stimulation in the early-phase response, while secretion of de novo synthesized TNF-α and IL-6 production occurs several hours post-stimulation, in the late-phase PRKD3 response. Because early-phase activation events may influence late-phase responses, and because desensitization may affect early and late-phase responses differently, www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN8237.html we studied TNF-α, a product of mast cell responses in both phases, and IL-6, a cytokine not typically stored but produced in the late phase. Pre-formed TNF-α released with 1 ng DNP-HSA challenge was 490 pg±15%, while in rapid-desensitized cells the release was 185 pg±23%, a significant 62% reduction (see Fig. 2D, white bars). During the late-phase response, 4 h after activation or desensitization,

the release of newly generated TNF-α from DNP-activated cells was 978 pg±23%, while rapid-desensitized cells released 272 pg±22%, a significant 72% reduction (see Fig. 2D, black bars). The production of IL-6 assessed 4 h after activation or desensitization (see Fig. 2E) was 14362 pg±42% and 3665 pg±35%, respectively, showing a 75% reduction. Those results indicate that desensitization impaired early- and late-phase mast cell responses. It has been reported that STAT6 plays a pivotal role in antigen/IgE/FcεRI-mediated cytokine release from mast cells and that STAT6 phosphorylation occurs not only through the JAK-STAT pathway after IL-4 receptor activation but also after antigen crosslinking of FcεRI/IgE 18. Since our previous studies showed that STAT6-null BMMCs from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice could not be desensitized 16, we explored how rapid desensitization targeted STAT6.

The AnnexinV stainings reveal that while Myc is necessary for cel

The AnnexinV stainings reveal that while Myc is necessary for cell cycling, Pim1 allows survival of these proliferating cells. This finding agrees with the previous reports, which indicate that Pim1 is a co-activator PD0325901 chemical structure of Myc and cooperates by an anti-apoptotic action to enhance Myc-driven cell proliferation in a proB-cell line 19 and a human embryonic kidney cell line 22. Verbeek et al. 18 found that Eμ-Pim1/Myc-double-transgenic mice develop a dramatic

prenatal expansion of pre-B cells and early B cells in liver and spleen, but not in BM, Peyer’s patches and lymph nodes. Transplantation of such expanding pre-B- and early B cells from peripheral blood of the double-transgenic mice resulted in the outgrowth of lymphomas within 9 weeks. After transplantation, buy Romidepsin our Pim1/Myc-double-transduced pre-B cells show a population and expansion of pre-B cells comparable to that in Eμ Myc/Pim1 mice also in spleen, LNs and peritoneum upon overexpression of Pim1 and Myc for 4-8 weeks. This cellular expansion was completely reversible upon removal of doxycycline. Hence, additional rare transforming events had no measurable effects on the proliferative expansion of the oncogene-transduced

pre-B cells within the 2 months in the presence of doxycycline after transplantation. If such additional transforming events had occurred in the in vitro or in vivo expanding pre-B- and immature B cells, they either did not become independent of the actions of Pim1 and Myc, or were too rare to become manifest within the two months in vivo. Recently, it has been shown that even in established tumors, constitutive expression of specific oncogenes (and especially Myc) is crucial for tumor survival 30, 31. In contrast to pre-BI cells, which started to propagate in the transplanted host mice upon overexpression of Pim1 and

Myc, in vivo matured sIgM+ B cells in transplanted host mice were not able to expand in vivo upon overexpression of Pim1 and Myc. This suggests that the resting, mature B-cell pools are unaffected by the overexpression of Pim1 and Myc. Even upon ex vivo stimulation of purified IgM+ or CD19+ splenic B cells with polyclonal B-cell activators, proliferation remained limited, regardless of whether Pim1/Myc were Immune system overexpressed or not. This finding rules out the possibility that the mature B cells need an external trigger (such as activation) to enter the cell cycle before overexpression of Myc and Pim1 can maintain cell cycling and enhance survival. Therefore, the capability of B-lineage cells to proliferate in response to Pim1 and Myc overexpression seems to be restricted to a window of B-cell development from pre-BI to immature B cells. It remains to be investigated whether the transformability by Pim1 and Myc extends into earlier stages of hematopoietic development.

He was diagnosed with IgA nephropathy

(Lee’s grade III)

He was diagnosed with IgA nephropathy

(Lee’s grade III). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, calcium-channel blockers and anticoagulant drug were given to Palbociclib him, and after 3 months, 24 h urine protein decreased to 0.7 g from initial 1.4 g. Other laboratory examination findings revealed that urine erythrocytes was 5–8/HPF,serum creatinine was 103.8 μmol/L, and serum albumin and total protein were 47.3 g/L and 70.6 g/L, respectively. In addition, his blood pressure was controlled in the normal range (130/80 mmHg). A 15-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with the laboratory examination findings of haematuria combined with proteinuria. For 5 years before visiting our hospital, the patient had been suffering recurrent peliosis on bilateral lower extremities. The peliosis appeared again 2 months before visiting our hospital. At the hospital in her Volasertib mw hometown, she was diagnosed with Henoch-Schonlein purpura, and had been given intensive methylprednisolone therapy for 3 days, the peliosis gradually disappeared. The treatment was adjusted to 32 mg methylprednisolone daily. However, the peliosis relapsed 7 days before visiting our hospital. Furthermore, urine analysis revealed urine protein (3+) and occult blood (2+). After being admitted to our hospital, laboratory examination fiindings were

as follows: urinary sediment findings revealed urine erythrocytes 30–35/HPF, routine urinalysis revealed urine protein 500 mg/dL, 24 h urine protein 1.7 g, serum albumin 38.5 g/L, total protein 56.7 g/L, blood uria nitrogen 2.7 mmol/L, serum creatinine 66.9 μmol/L, antistrptolysin O (ASO) <200 U/mL, IgG 696 mg/dL, IgA

170 mg/dL, C3 113 mg/dL, C4 29.4 mg/dL. The anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-Sm antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), anti-HIV antibodies, Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibodies were all negative, the blood coagulation function of the patient was normal. Blood pressure was 110/70 mmHg, Rutecarpine other physical examinations and family medical history were also negative. Both abdominal ultrasonography and CT scanning of bilateral kidneys (Fig. 1b) revealed horseshoe kidney and normal size of kidneys. Furthermore, abdominal ultrasonography and CT scanning did not show vascular malformation around HSK or renal cyst. After the value and risks of renal biopsy were sufficiently evaluated, percutaneous renal biopsy was performed by experienced doctors under informed consent with ultrasonic guidance using a standard needle biopsy gun at the left renal upper pole. She did not present any postoperative complications as massive haemorrhage and infection. Light micrograph (PAS stain): of 28 glomeruli obtained, none of global sclerosis, segmental sclerosis or adhesion was found, six crescents (21.4%, two mixed crescents composed of cellulous and fibrous constituents, four fibrous crescents) were found.

However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory con

However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory contexts, ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues can develop inappropriately under pathological stress. Here we summarize the role of stromal cells in the development of homeostatic lymphoid tissue, and assess emerging evidence that suggests a critical role for stromal

AZD0530 chemical structure involvement in the tertiary lymphoid tissue development associated with chronic infections and inflammation. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) function to increase the efficiency of interactions between rare, antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, concentrating antigen and lymphocytes in a supportive environment that facilitates the initiation of an adaptive immune response. Homeostatic lymphoid tissue organogenesis proceeds via exquisitely controlled spatiotemporal interactions between haematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer populations and multiple subsets of non-haematopoietic

stromal cells. However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory contexts, ectopic or tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) can develop inappropriately under pathological BMS-777607 stress. Here we summarize the role of stromal cells in the development of homeostatic lymphoid tissue, and assess emerging evidence that suggests a critical role for stromal involvement in the TLO development associated with chronic infections and inflammation. Peripheral lymphoid tissue generation occurs sequentially in the developing mouse embryo from embryonic days E11 to E16.[1, 2] Lymph node (LN) development is thought to be initiated by the production of retinoic acid, which acts on mesenchymal stromal cells at predetermined anatomical sites to induce expression

of the chemokine CXCL13[3] (Fig. 1). It has been proposed that outgrowing nerves are responsible for the production of retinoic acid in development, as they express RALDH2, an enzyme required for the conversion of retinal to retinoic acid.[3] A CXCL13 gradient attracts CXCR5+ haematopoietic cells to the LN anlagen; the first cells to arrive are lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTis),[4] derived from fetal liver progenitor cells that can also give rise to B cells, T cells, natural killer cells and dendritic cells.[5] Depsipeptide order The LTis express lymphotoxin (LT) α1β2 (LTα1β2), a cytokine that is the major determinant of SLO development.[6-8] LTα1β2 is a heterotrimeric complex, comprising membrane-bound LTβ and soluble LTα. Together these bind to the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) that is predominantly expressed by mesenchymal stromal cells. Interestingly, the first CXCR5+ LTis recruited to the site of LN formation express receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), rather than LTα1β2.[9, 10] Indeed the initial clustering of LTis can occur without LTα1β2 expression by LTis[9] or LTβR expression on mesenchymal stromal cells.

On the basis of these results,

0·5 µM was used for JNK in

On the basis of these results,

0·5 µM was used for JNK inhibitor and 1 µM was used for p38 MAPK inhibitor. As shown in Fig. 2, GXM induced activation of JNK and p38 MAPK; this activation was blocked by using specific inhibitors. Activation was demonstrated by cytofluorimetric analysis (Fig. 2a,b), which showed an increase in the percentage of p-JNK as well as p-p38-positive cells after GXM treatment. The effect was completely lost in the presence of specific inhibitors. Up-regulation of p-JNK and p-p38 expression, and the inhibition of this effect in the presence of specific inhibitors was also observed through Western blotting analysis (Fig. 2c,d). To determine whether these kinases were activated via FcγRIIB engagement, MonoMac6 cells Selleckchem Neratinib were treated with polyclonal antibody to FcγRIIB for 30 min at 4°C and then GXM was added for 2 h at 37°C. As shown in Fig. 3 the GXM-mediated up-regulation of p-JNK was completely abrogated by blocking the interaction of GXM with FcγRIIB whereas, as shown in Fig. 4, the up-regulation of p-p38 was inhibited significantly

even if not completely blocked. These results were obtained by using cytofluorimetric analysis (Figs 3a and 4a) and Western find more blotting analysis (Figs 3b and 4b). C-Jun is an important component of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex whose induction is mainly mediated directly by JNK and indirectly by p38 MAPK cascades [18,33–35]. Thus, MonoMac6 cells were incubated alone or with GXM for 2 h. The results obtained by cytofluorimetric analysis showed that GXM induced activation of c-Jun (Fig. 5a–c). Similar results were obtained by Western blotting (Fig. 5d–f). In addition, treatment of cells with specific inhibitors of JNK or

p38 resulted in a significant reduction of c-Jun activation. These results were obtained by cytofluorimetric analysis (Fig. 5a,b) and confirmed by Western blotting (Fig. 5d,e). To investigate the possibility that activation of c-Jun is mediated, at least in part, by the GXM uptake via FcγRIIB, we blocked GXM binding to FcγRIIB. For this purpose, cells were treated with polyclonal antibody to FcγRIIB and then www.selleck.co.jp/products/Gefitinib.html GXM was added for 2 h. The results showed that activation of c-Jun was down-regulated when FcγRIIB engagement was blocked. Results obtained by using cytofluorimetric analysis were similar to those obtained by Western blotting (Fig. 5c,f). Given that both JNK and p38 MAPK are activated simultaneously by GXM, we wanted to determine whether these two pathways were activated independently. For this purpose, GXM-induced activation of p38 MAPK was tested in the presence or absence of JNK inhibitor (SP 600125). Cells were treated with JNK inhibitor or p38 inhibitor (SB 203580) for 30 min at 37°C and then GXM was added for 2 h. As shown in Fig. 6, JNK inhibition did not affect the GXM-induced activation of p38.

After centrifugation of the supernatant, contaminating erythrocyt

After centrifugation of the supernatant, contaminating erythrocytes were lysed with distilled water followed by the addition of 2·7% NaCl to stop hypotonic lysis. Neutrophils were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and resuspended at a total concentration of 2 × 106

Cobimetinib PMN/ml in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM)/1% FBS. Trachea and bronchial parts of the respiratory system were excised, ligated at the distal ends, filled with 0·01% protease type XIV (Sigma, Buchs, Switzerland) and incubated overnight at 4°C [10]. Tracheobronchial epithelial cells were flushed out with FBS, washed twice, and incubated in airway epithelial cell basal medium (PromoCell, Heidelberg, Germany)/10% premium FBS (BioWhittaker, Verviers, Belgium)/1% penicillin/streptomycin in 96-well plates, coated previously with 50 µg/ml rat tail collagen (Sigma, Buchs, Switzerland) for 30 min at room temperature. Cells reached 100% confluency within 3 days. Purity was verified using periodic acid-Schiff staining (>98%). Epithelial cell character was also confirmed independently by a pathologist at the University Hospital of Zurich, performing cytokeratin staining. L2 cells (CCL 149; American Type Culture Collection) are isolated BGB324 in vivo cell lines derived through cloning of

adult female rat lung of alveolar epithelial cell type

II origin [11]. Cells from passages 4–12 were used. The cells were cultured in DMEM; Invitrogen AG, Basel, Switzerland, supplemented with 10% FBS), 1% penicillin–streptomycin, and 1% HEPES buffer and grown in uncoated 96-well plates (Corning Inc., Corning, NY, USA) to more than 95% confluence. Prior to cell stimulation, the medium was changed to DMEM/1%FBS. A cell incubator (Bioblock, Ittigen, Switzerland) adjustable to different oxygen concentrations by insufflation of nitrogen (N2) was used as a hypoxic cell chamber. The concentrations were monitored Cell press continuously by an oxygen sensor. Experiments were performed with 5% oxygen and 5% CO2 at 37°C. For control cells, an incubator (Bioblock) with 21% O2, 5% CO2 at 37°C was used. For our studies, all four cell types were plated in 96-well tissue culture plates (Corning) and exposed to 5% O2 for 4, 8 and 24 h. Cells were washed twice and incubated with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5 (LPS; 20 µg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich, Buchs, Switzerland) (or PBS as a control) for 4, 8 and 24 h at 37°C. For the caspase assays, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, tracheobronchial and alveolar epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS (20 µg/ml) or with camptothecin as positive control (4 µM), or they exposed to hypoxia for 4, 8 and 24 h.

12 Many of the best characterized

12 Many of the best characterized learn more experimental models of glomerular disease in vivo have been in rats, which

seem to be generally more susceptible than mice. It was therefore natural for researchers to wish to have rat podocyte cell lines with which to conduct parallel studies in vitro. Primary culture13 and transformed14 rat podocytes have been described. Insects provide a powerful research tool because of their rapid rate of reproduction and comparatively simple organ structure. The analogous cell to the podocyte in Drosophila (fruit fly) is the nephrocyte15 but as yet we are not aware of the development of cell lines derived from these. Conditionally immortalized human podocyte cell lines have been developed by transfection using both the temperature-sensitive mutant U19tsA58 of the SV40 large T antigen (SV40) and the essential catalytic subunit of the hTERT telomerase gene.9,10 The hTERT vector expresses

telomerase activity to maintain telomere length, preventing the occurrence of replicative senescence.16 Transfection of cells with SV40T allows cells to proliferate at the ‘permissive’ temperature of 33°C. Transfer to the ‘non-permissive’ temperature of 37°C results in the inactivation of large T antigen with minor changes in gene expression.17 Podocytes then enter growth arrest (Fig. 1) and express markers of differentiated in vivo podocytes, including the novel podocyte proteins, nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and synaptopodin, and known molecules of the slit diaphragm ZO-1, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin and Napabucasin molecular weight P-cadherin.18 The donated human kidney (or portion of kidney) is packed in saline, on ice, Dynein and transferred by courier to the laboratory. The kidney is kept in a cool condition (kidney in separate container surrounded with wet ice bags/packs) during transportation at all times. Cells can be successfully cultured up to 24 h post nephrectomy. We believe that children’s kidney tissue is most productive, but we have successfully generated cell lines from adult kidney too. Set up the laminar flow hood before proceeding. Place sieves in order from top to bottom: 425 µM, 180 µM, 125 µM, 90 µM (the smallest size

is needed only for a kidney from a young child) sieves (Endecotts limited, London) and below them all a sterile container to collect the sieved material. Remove the outer membrane/capsule of the kidney and isolate the cortex with sterile disposable scalpels into small pieces from the medulla into a Petri dish. Chop up the cortex into small pieces then transfer to the sieve in a laminar flow hood and cut up more finely. Use a sterile plunger from a 50 mL or 100 mL syringe to push the small pieces through the top sieve (425 µM) while thoroughly washing the sieve with RPMI-1640 medium (without additives) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Repeat this until little is left on the top sieve. Sieving is achieved by fluid flushing and not washing the plunger for the 180 µM sieve onwards.

Haemodialysis, including

anticoagulation, is prescribed b

Haemodialysis, including

anticoagulation, is prescribed by dialysis doctors but delivered by dialysis nurses. The main agents used in clinical practice for anticoagulation during haemodialysis are unfractionated heparin (UF heparin) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). LMWH has a number of potential advantages, apart from cost. One of the most serious complications of the use of any form of heparin is heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) Type II, which occurs more commonly with UF heparin than LMWH. HIT Type II Obeticholic Acid price risks severe morbidity and mortality and is challenging to treat successfully in both the acute and chronic phase. In HIT Type II anticoagulation must be delivered without heparin. A wide array of newer anticoagulants are becoming progressively available, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. In maintenance haemodialysis patients with an increased risk of bleeding, a ‘no heparin’ dialysis may be undertaken, or regional anticoagulation considered. Because this aspect of dialysis is so important to the safe and effective delivery of haemodialysis therapy, dialysis clinicians need to review and update their

knowledge of dialysis anticoagulation on a regular basis. The coagulation cascade is complex, multiply redundant and includes intricate checks and balances. While the complexity of the coagulation cascade has been well studied, most schemas simplify the cascade into two arms – the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway, meeting at factor X which is activated to Xa to

trigger the subsequent activation of prothrombin (factor II) to thrombin (factor Caspase activity assay IIa), leading to the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen in the final common pathway.1 The intrinsic pathway is activated by damaged or negatively charged surfaces and the accumulation of kininogen and kallikrein. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tends to reflect changes in the intrinsic pathway. The extrinsic pathway is triggered by trauma or injury, which releases tissue factor. The extrinsic pathway is measured by the prothrombin test. Haemodialysis involves the circulation of whole blood through a dialysis circuit and artificial kidney (dialyser) both of which have the tendency to activate coagulation pathways. The dialyser is generally constructed of synthetic microfibres with narrow lumen, lacking endothelial most lining and experiencing disordered flow – including both shear and turbulence. Factors that determine the thrombogenicity of different dialysis membranes include chemical composition, charge, ability to adhere or activate circulating cellular elements (including platelets) and other characteristics which activate thrombotic pathways.2 Studies suggest that cuprophane membranes may be more thrombogenic than polyacrylonitrile, which is more thrombogenic than polysulphone membranes and haemophan, with the least thrombogenic possibly being polyamide.

Methods: We present a photographic case series of 8 paediatric pa

Methods: We present a photographic case series of 8 paediatric patients with PD exit site infections and/or over-granulation successfully treated with topical medical grade honey in place of topical antibiotic mupirocin, accompanied

by a literature review of medical honey for the treatment of paediatric wounds. Results: Improvement was observed in all cases, assessed by modified Twardowski criteria, from a median score of 3 (‘acute infection’) to a median score of 1 (‘good’). Conclusions: Medical grade honey is the first line prophylactic exit-site ointment in peritoneal dialysis exit-sites at our institution. We are increasingly turning to honey to salvage infected exit sites threatening the need for removal, with PCI-32765 much success. Increasing case reports are suggesting improvement in infected and poorly healing wounds in children with complex medical conditions. 253 PROTEINURIA IN DECEASED KIDNEY DONORS. DOES IT INFLUENCE RECIPIENT OUTCOME? T YING1, K POLKINGHORNE1,2,

W MULLEY2, H OPDAM3, J KANELLIS1,2 learn more 1Department of Nephrology, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria; 2Monash University Department of Medicine, Clayton, Victoria; 3Donatelife Victoria, Carlton, Australia Aim: To determine whether the detection of proteinuria in deceased donors influences recipient outcomes. Background: Proteinuria is common in patients with critical illness. The effect of pre-donation proteinuria in deceased donors on recipient outcomes is unknown. DonateLife Victoria began collecting proteinuria data on most donors after 04/2011. This was driven by a demand for this information from transplanting

units due to an increase in marginal donors being offered. Methods: Victorian deceased kidney donors accepted by our institution from 04/2011–12/2012 and associated recipient outcomes were reviewed. Proteinuria was defined as urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) ≥45 mg/mmol based on UK CKD guidelines. DonateLife recorded UPCR in 66/72 cases. We assessed whether donor proteinuria was associated with donor factors (age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease) or recipient Sinomenine outcomes including 12mth graft function. Results: Two donors and recipients were excluded from analysis because of early graft loss. 26/64 (40.6%) donors had proteinuria. Proteinuria was not associated with donor age, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, cardiac or brain death, or delayed graft function requiring dialysis. Proteinuria was associated with reduced early graft function (day 7 recipient eGFR with donor proteinuria vs no proteinuria: 23 ± 19 vs 36 ± 24 mL/min; P = 0.03). There was no association with function at later time points (12mth recipient eGFR with donor proteinuria vs no proteinuria: 50 ± 16 vs 57 ± 21 mL/min; P = 0.16).