, 2011) The G allele of MT2A rs10636 abolishes a binding site fo

, 2011). The G allele of MT2A rs10636 abolishes a binding site for DREAM, a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor ( Carrion et al., 1999); and creates one for EKLF, which is involved in transcriptional regulation in erythroids

( Donze et al., 1995). The G allele of MT2A rs28366003 abolishes a binding site for MTF1, a transcription factor that is known to induce gene expression in response to Cd. The frequency of the rs11076161 A allele among Europeans (0.26) is estimated to be lower than in the Chinese population, whereas it is higher among Africans (0.52) (www.ncbi.nlm.nih/projects/SNP), suggesting that differences in susceptibility to renal toxicity between different populations could be expected. The finding of a relationship between B-Cd and MT1A rs11076161 makes it difficult to distinguish whether the genotype affects the Cd body burden, or if it has a specific effect

on Cd in blood. Genotype selleck products specific expression of MT1A caused by presence/absence of a ZBTB16 transcription signal could be the underlying mechanism that explains why AA/AG carriers are at higher risk to develop affected kidney function upon exposure to Cd. More studies will be needed to verify the effect of rs11076161 genotypes on Cd-induced renal toxicity. An ideal way would be to obtain cell lines that differ in rs11076161 genotype and study their cadmium sensitivity. NU7441 The MT2A rs28366003 genotype seemed to have a slight effect on the B-Cd levels, which was more evident in the low exposure group. However, when considering B-Cd in tertiles, there was no effect of this SNP on the Cd concentrations and we could not

support evidence from other studies. The variant genotype GG was associated with increased concentrations of Cd in the kidney tissue from autopsies ( Kayaalti et al., 2010 and Kita 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl et al., 2006) and blood ( Kayaalti et al., 2011). Kita et al. (2006) demonstrated a reduced expression of this G variant in response to Cd and Zn exposure, and thus, one could expect that G carriers would suffer more toxic effects of Cd. However, the latter could not be supported in our study. Rather the opposite was observed; G carriers had lower levels of UNAG in urine. In conclusion, this study identifies that the rs11076161 G → A exchange of MT1A influences the toxicity of Cd on renal function: AA genotype may be more sensitive to cadmium toxicity than those with the GG genotype. It suggests that MT1A variation may be an additional useful indicator to monitor for prediction of the risk of renal dysfunction in certain populations. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. This study was supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, and The European Union within the Sixth Framework Programme for RTD (“PHIME” contract no FOOD-CT-2006-016253.

CSIR Junior Research Fellowship to Preeti

Arora is gratef

CSIR Junior Research Fellowship to Preeti

Arora is gratefully acknowledged. “
“Concerns about freshwater pollution from fish farming have led to the development of high-performance low-phosphorus (P) diets, resulting in a reduced nutrient output (Vandenberg and Koko, 2006). However, questions have been raised regarding the impact of insufficient P during rapid fish growth on the occurrence of vertebral deformities (Sugiura et al., 2004, Fjelldal et al., 2012a and Fjelldal find more et al., 2012b). In most cases, skeletal abnormalities in early stages are not visually detectable (Witten et al., 2005) and may be reversed to a certain degree, hence the importance of understanding initial underlying biological mechanisms. To date, transcriptomic data are still lacking regarding specific bone response to P deficiency. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology, which appeared suitable to generate transcriptomic information on non-model species (McGettigan, 2013 and Fox et al., 2014). This study aims to provide a more comprehensive reference transcriptome for the bone tissue in trout as well as to annotate and highlight sequences that have biological functions involved in P regulation. It is intended as a first step permitting quantitative genomic studies on the skeletal SP600125 tissue in relation

to P requirements. All-female triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were transferred (N = 1680, initial mass 60.8 ± 1.6 g; St-Alexis-des-Monts Inc., Canada) to the experimental facilities of the Laboratoire de recherche des sciences aquatiques (LARSA), Université Laval (Québec, Canada). Fish were initially acclimated for two weeks and fed a commercial

feed (Corey Optimum 3 mm) in accordance to the manufacturer’s tables. Thereafter, fish were fed with Rebamipide practical diets, either P-deficient (D, available P: 0.29%) or P-sufficient (S, available P: 0.45%), already tested in our laboratory ( Deschamps et al., 2014, Le Luyer et al., 2014 and Poirier Stewart et al., 2014). Animal rearing, P status and vertebrae monitoring were assessed according to the published methods (see for details Le Luyer et al., 2014 and Poirier Stewart et al., 2014). Experiments took place in compliance with the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (2005) and supervised by the Animal Protection Committee of the Université Laval. Fish sampling was performed to maximize the representation of fish sizes, diets and vertebral phenotypes (Table 1). Initially (week 0) and for P-deficient and P-sufficient diets (week 4), fish were randomly sampled. Two individuals displaying the two most common types of P-related vertebral deformities at week 27 were also added (Poirier Stewart et al., 2014). Three caudal vertebrae (V35–36–37) with ligaments and intervertebral tissues were collected from each fish. Hemal and neural arches were removed and the remaining body and flesh removed by rinsing and brushing with PBS (1X).

Sambuks are used for longer trips ranging from a few days to thre

Sambuks are used for longer trips ranging from a few days to three weeks [4] and [27]. Fishing is highly seasonal, with activity restricted by the monsoon winds (the northeast winter monsoon ranges from November to February and the southwest summer monsoon ranges from June to September) [4]. As a result, fishermen tend to relocate their fishing activities [5] or shift their fishing gear to target different species. Shifting of

either GSK2126458 mouse fishing gear or target species is also frequent with seasonal changes in fish production; fishermen shift when the fishery is not profitable and return when it is profitable again. For example, fishermen targeting demersal fish along the Red Sea typically shift to cuttlefish following a decrease in demersal fish catches. Fisheries management usually must have a policy framework this website which sets objectives to achieve and mechanisms to follow in decision-making. Next, it must have a suite of laws and regulations to control stakeholders׳ behavior. Finally, it must have an enforcement power to ensure compliance and implementation of these rules in practice. How appropriate these tools are

to a specific fishery, will determine the type and success of the resulted management. The stated objectives of the fisheries sector include protection of fish resources and the environment, the encouragement and regulation of investments in fishing and marketing, provision of post-harvest facilities, setting measures and norms to regulate fishing with a gradual replacement of industrial fishing by artisanal fishing, and the encouragement of aquaculture investments. Despite these stated objectives, the policy during the past three decades has been development-oriented and has centered on encouraging investment in fisheries exploitation and increasing fish production. To ensure sustainable

resource conservation and management, the fishery should have an effective legal and administrative framework and an appropriate compliance and enforcement tools to ensure the subsequent implementation of the legislation. The Molecular motor regulation of exploitation of fish resources is controlled by the law no. 2 of 2006, which, when issued, canceled the law no. 42 of 1991 and the law no. 43 of 1997. This law prescribes the requirements of fishing boats with regards to fishing, specifies the powers of the minister and the competences of the MFW, the competences of the branches of the MFW in coastal cities (currently contained within the Fisheries Authorities), and specifies the requirements of coastal and industrial vessels and the penalties for violations of the provisions of this law. Fishing vessels are classified according to boat length and engine power.

The magnitude of Fi depends on relative rather than absolute spec

The magnitude of Fi depends on relative rather than absolute spectral energies. In contrast, PDR* is equal to the energy of blue-green light that can be absorbed Ferroptosis activation by unit mass of chlorophyll a and which could cause the photooxidation of chlorophyll a ( Majchrowski 2001). The statistical relationships were analysed between the relative concentrations of pigment groups (Ci tot/Cchl a) identified in natural samples from the Baltic Sea and empirically established optical depths τ. The general form of the function approximating these values in the

waters of the Baltic is analogous to that obtained for Case 1 waters ( Majchrowski 2001): equation(5) Ci,tot/Cchlatot=AiexpBi×τ, where Ci tot – concentration of i-pigment groups [μg dm− 3], The results of the verification of the approximating functions (eq. (5)) are OSI-744 price shown in Table 2. The analysis was based on all sets of

measurement where < ε > = (Ci, calc − Ci, meas)/Ci, meas – relative error. < log(Ci, calc/Ci, meas) > – mean of log (Ci, calc/Ci, meas). Ci, meas, Ci, calc – concentrations of pigment groups measured and calculated using appropriate formulas (5)–(8). σε – standard deviation of errors (statistical error). < ε > – arithmetic mean of errors. σlog – standard deviation of log(Ci, calc/Ci, meas). < ε > g – logarithmic mean of errors. x=10σlogx=10σlog – standard error factor. <ε>g=10[]−1. σ  + = x   − 1 and σ−=1x−1. Full-size table Table options View in workspace Download as CSV data obtained in 1999–2004 (value N in Table 1), when measurements were performed in different seasons, in different areas of the southern Baltic region and at various depths. The relative estimation errors are the smallest in the case of the total content of chlorophyll c (σ− = 34.6%), and the largest in the case of chlorophyll b (σ− = 56.7%). A comparative analysis was also carried out to estimate

the relative concentrations of the major groups of pigments – total chlorophylls b (Cchl b tot/Cchl a tot, where Cchl b tot = Cchl Chorioepithelioma b + Cchl b, nz, Cchl a tot = Cchl a + Cchlide + Cchl a, nz, nz – denotes unidentified pigments from groups whose content is roughly estimated on the basis of chromatographic characteristics), chlorophylls c (Cchl c tot/Cchl a tot, Cchl c tot = Cchl c1 + c2 + Cchl c3 + Cchl c, nz), the sum of photosynthetic carotenoids (CPSC tot/Cchl a tot, CPSC tot = CPSC + CPSC, nz) and the sum of photoprotective carotenoids (CPPC tot/Cchl a tot, CPPC, tot = CPPC + CPPC, nz) – with respect to the optical depth τ obtained for oceanic waters ( Majchrowski 2001) and southern Baltic Sea waters (results obtained in this work). The results of these comparisons are presented in Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5 separately for each group of pigments.

We examined three

sediment cores taken from Tromper Wiek

We examined three

sediment cores taken from Tromper Wiek (Figure 1). All were characterized by a similar lithology and geochemical composition. The shallowest (core 233230) was taken at a depth of 28.7 m b.s.l. (Figure 5). The sediments could be divided into two zones (Figure 6). The lower zone (E; 132–423 cm) PD0325901 supplier contained olive-grey silt with fine humus particles in the lower portion, and fine sand with plant remains in the upper portion. The sediment of zone E had the highest content of terrigenous silica (97%) and a low content of biogenic silica (2%), loss on ignition (2%) and ratios of Mg/Ca

(0.2), and Fe/Mn (40). The Na/K ratio was less than 1. The upper zone (F; 0–132 cm) consisted of olive-grey mud with some shell remains. It was indistinctly laminated below 96 cm and slightly darker and sandy below 127 cm. The base of zone F had the lowest content of terrigenous silica (70%), which gradually increased in the upper portion of the core. This zone had a higher content of biogenic silica (7.3%) than zone E, a higher loss on ignition (7.4%) and greater ratios of Mg/Ca (0.8), Na/K (1.5) and Fe/Mn (100). Core 233240 was taken at a depth of 29.5 m b.s.l., 2 km north-west of core 233230 (Figures 1, 5). The sediments of this core were divided Antidiabetic Compound Library cell line into the same two zones as in core 233230 (Figure 6). The lower DOK2 zone (E; 132–328 cm) consisted of fine, pale-olive sand with a thin silty layer at 160 cm and olive-grey silt with a 1 cm layer of peat gyttja at 141 cm. The geochemical composition of zone E had the highest content in the core of terrigenous

silica (96%) and low biogenic silica content (1%), loss on ignition (1.5%) and ratios of Mg/Ca (0.1) and Fe/Mn (55). The Na/K ratio increased gradually to a value of 2 in the upper levels of zone E. The upper zone (F; 0–132 cm) consisted of fine, olive-grey sandy mud with a large broken Arctica shell at 119 cm. The geochemical composition of this zone had the lowest content of terrigenous silica (70%) in the core and a higher contribution of biogenic silica (5.5%), loss on ignition (6%) and ratios of Mg/Ca (0.7), Na/K (1.5) and Fe/Mn (120). The deepest core from Tromper Wiek (core 233250) was taken at a depth of 30.7 m b.s.l., 10 km north-west of core 233240 (Figures 1, 5). This core consisted of two sediment zones (Figure 6). The lower zone (E; 233–431 cm) consisted of fine, dark-grey sand with a downward decreasing number of humus particles. The main features of the geochemical composition were the high content of terrigenous silica (99%), and the low biogenic silica content (1%), low loss on ignition (1.5%) and low ratios of Mg/Ca (0.2) and Fe/Mn (50). The Na/K ratio exhibited poor variability along the core. The upper zone (F; 0–233 cm) consisted of fine, olive-grey sandy mud with shell debris at 90 cm.

We hypothesized that changes in the humoral components during SD

We hypothesized that changes in the humoral components during SD can have important health implications. In this study, we observed statistically significant differences Z-VAD-FMK mw in the levels of all humoral components between the two groups. Although the number of subjects included in this study was small because SD studies are considered

to be limited by stress reactions in humans, we considered that the magnitude of the changes induced by SD may reflect the actual variability. We observed that the serum IgG, IgA, IgM, and C3 and C4 levels increased in individuals after 24 h of SD. Ozturk et al. (1999) determined the effects of 48 h of SD on the immune profile of male subjects and did not find statistically significant differences in the IgG and IgM levels (Ozturk et al., 1999); these findings were not consistent with those of our study. The inconsistency between the 2 findings can be attributed to the differences in the sex or race of the subjects, who may show differences www.selleckchem.com/products/epz015666.html in the sensitivities to SD. Renegar et al. (1998) determined the effects of brief SD on immunity to influenza virus in aged mice, which were

administered an immune booster 3 weeks before the challenge and sleep-deprived once before and twice after the challenge. They found that SD did not depress the level of serum influenza-specific IgG antibodies, but instead increased it compared with that in the mice with a normal sleep pattern. They concluded that short-term SD has minimal effects on pre-existing mucosal and humoral immunity in both young and senescent mice (Renegar et al., 1998). Gumustekin et al. (2004) assessed the effects of SD on wound healing in rats and measured the level of IgG in the wound area. They observed that the IgG levels in the sleep-deprived group were higher than those in the control group (Gumustekin et al., 2004); these findings are consistent with our results. In our study, the levels of all immunoglobulin and complement components were elevated but remained within the normal range, except for IgG

that slightly exceeded the normal range. Therefore, the increase was not considered to be related to pathological changes and was speculated to be nonspecific. The Reverse transcriptase mechanism underlying the elevation of the humoral components may involve the production and release of cytokines such as IL-2 and IL-6 during SD (Dinges et al., 1995, Irwin et al., 1999 and Redwine et al., 2000). This implies that sleep–wake activity plays an important role in humoral-mediated immunity, although the causes of the effects of SD remain unknown. We hypothesize that wakefulness may be necessary for the normal functioning of the immune system, while long-term sleep may be considered as a pathological process activating the immune system. Further investigations need to be conducted on the mechanisms underlying these changes to test this hypothesis. “
“Chronic hepatitis C affects over 170 million individuals worldwide (Capuron et al.

GFP-fascin−rescued cells generated protrusions that more effectiv

GFP-fascin−rescued cells generated protrusions that more effectively transmigrated than fascin nulls ( Figure 7C and Video 6). Nude mice injected with fascin-deficient PDAC cells developed significantly fewer mesenteric or diaphragm metastatic foci than those with fascin-rescued cells ( Figure 7E and F). These results are consistent with our spontaneous mouse model and suggest that targeting the interaction of PDAC cells with the mesothelium through fascin depletion is sufficient

to reduce metastasis in vivo. Nearly all human PDAC expressed fascin, and a higher fascin histoscore correlated with poor outcomes, vascular invasion, and time to recurrence. Similar correlations have been reported Selleck BKM120 for hepatocellular and extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas.29 and 30 Fascin expression in smaller cohorts of human PDAC and PanIN,31 and 32 and also in pancreatobiliary adenocarcinomas33 and pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma,34 correlated selleck chemicals llc with shorter survival times and more advanced stages. Fascin expression contributes to progression of human PDAC, but is only of borderline significance as a prognostic indicator, indicating that other factors contribute to recurrence and spread. Fascin is a wnt target in colorectal

cancer, where it localizes to tumor invasive fronts but is down-regulated in metastases.35 However, in KrasG12D- and p53R172H-driven pancreatic cancer, fascin is evenly expressed in tumors and remains highly expressed in liver and peritoneal metastases. Unlike colorectal cancer, the role of wnt signaling in pancreatic cancer progression is less clear,36 and we find that fascin is an EMT target of the Tf slug. Slug is expressed in pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells and

effects EMT changes and migration during early embryonic development.6 We speculate that PDAC cells might reacquire slug and fascin during a partial reversion to an embryonic migratory state. There is controversy about whether gene changes that confer metastatic dissemination Inositol monophosphatase 1 of pancreatic cancer (or other cancers) occur early in tumor formation or later. A recent study provided compelling evidence based on lineage tracing of cells by tumor mutation analysis that metastasis could occur even before there was a recognizable tumor.10 Our finding that fascin expression happens during late PanIN to PDAC transition suggest that EMT changes that promote metastasis start to happen early. EMT has been correlated with tumor-initiating (stem) cell properties and as a part of an EMT program.37 Fascin expression might allow tumor stem cells to thrive during initial tumor formation, as well as later during metastasis. Perhaps primary tumors and metastases first arise from small nests of fascin-positive cells in PanIN3. In this case, expression of fascin in PanINs might be predictive of tumor formation and metastasis. Fascin is not only expressed in PDAC tumor cells, but also in stroma of PDAC and of some PanIN.

Riegl (1995) found surge-induced peak suspended-sediment concentr

Riegl (1995) found surge-induced peak suspended-sediment concentrations of up to 389 mg L−1 in sandy gullies and 112 mg L−1 over coral on South African reefs; this, however, was local sediment stirred up and immediately re-deposited. While the studies above demonstrate that coral reefs and turbidity/sedimentation can coexist, it also shows the danger of introducing sediment since it is likely to be remobilised repeatedly.

All the reef systems discussed in the previous two paragraphs were clearly adapted to sedimentation and turbidity, with mostly low accretion rates demonstrated in South Africa (Ramsay and Mason, 1990 and Riegl et al., 1995) and quite high accretion rates on inshore reefs from the Great Barrier Reef (Larcombe GSK1120212 mw et al., 1995), comparable to those in “optimal” environments. Corals that are naturally exposed to high and variable background conditions of turbidity and sedimentation (e.g. due to storms and/or river influence) will show higher tolerances to short increases in turbidity or sedimentation MS-275 price caused by dredging (Nieuwaal, 2001). Corals from shallow-water environments, where they are frequently exposed to elevated temperatures,

storms and wave action, are more likely to be tolerant of environmental stresses than corals in deeper waters (Brown and Howard, 1985, Hoeksema, 1991b and Hoeksema and Matthews, 2011). A synthesis of literature data regarding the sensitivity of different coral species to turbidity is presented in Table 5. These data were reworked and related to a relative sensitivity index according

to the response matrix presented in Table 6. Sensitivity classes were then given scores from 1 to 5, with 1 corresponding to “very tolerant” and 5 to “very sensitive”. The scores for individual coral species were subsequently related to their dominant growth form and mean Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase calyx diameter. Analysis of these data (90 entries for 46 species) confirmed that there is a significant relationship (Kruskal–Wallis, P < 0.05) between the growth form of corals and their sensitivity to turbidity ( Fig. 5a). Most soft corals and many massive coral species are relatively sensitive to turbidity while laminar, plating and tabular corals as well as some morphologically variable corals are relatively tolerant. There was no significant relationship between the calyx diameter of corals and their sensitivity to turbidity ( Fig. 5b). Most coral species are sensitive to enhanced sedimentation, even in the order of a few centimetres per year (Rogers, 1990). Pastorok and Bilyard (1985) suggested that sedimentation rates of >50 mg cm−2 d−1 (equivalent to 500 g m−2 d−1) may be considered catastrophic for some coral communities, while 10–50 mg cm−2 d−1 could be classified as moderate to severe.

6 g/100 g) was significantly

higher than the adrenal glan

6 g/100 g) was significantly

higher than the adrenal gland weight of the Wistar group (10.0 ± 0.6 g/100 g) (Fig. 1B). In the panoramic histopathological analysis, the adrenal medulla was apparently normal in both groups of rats (Fig. 2A and B). In Fig. 2C and D are illustrated the cortical layers of Wistar rats and WARs, respectively. In the fasciculate layer of the cortical adrenal gland we observed hyperplasia and intensive capillary ingurgitation associated to a marked vacuolization of the fasciculata cells in WARs (Fig. 2E and F). Histological morphometry revealed a significant increase in adrenal medullar area in WARs when compared with Wistar rats (2.745 ± 0.392 mm2 vs. 1.443 ± 0.405 mm2), (Fig. 3A). Quantification of the cortical layers also demonstrated a significant increase in the fasciculate layer thickness in WARs when compared with Wistar rats Navitoclax (831.2 ± 66.1 μm vs. 533.0 ± 34.1 μm), with no significant difference in either reticularis or glomerulosa layers in both groups of rats (Fig. 3B) Plasma corticosterone values in basal conditions and after restraint stress were 1.4 ± 0.4 μg/dl and 30.1 ± 1.4 μg/dl, respectively, in WARs and 0.6 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 32.1 ± 1.7 μg/dl, respectively, in Wistar rats (Fig. 4A). Plasma ACTH values in basal conditions and after restraint stress

were 30.9 ± 6.1 pg/ml and 632.0 ± 50.5 pg/ml, respectively, in WARs and 23.8 ± 3.9 pg/ml and 468.9 ± 33.8 pg/ml, respectively, in Wistar rats (Fig. 4B). Compared to basal conditions, there was an increase in plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels after

restraint in both groups. There was no difference in corticosterone responses to stress between WARs and Wistar; however, plasma www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html ACTH levels after stress were higher (p < 0.01) in WARs as compared to Wistar rats. Plasma corticosterone values in basal conditions at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. were 0.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 6.1 ± 1.4 μg/dl, respectively, in WARs and 0.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 17.4 ± 2.6 μg/dl, respectively, in Wistar rats (Fig. 5A). Plasma ACTH values in basal conditions at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. were 20.5 ± 4.9 pg/ml and 25.7 ± 3.4 pg/ml, respectively, in WARs and 33.7 ± 5.6 pg/ml and 73.4 ± 9.9 pg/ml, respectively, in Wistar rats (Fig. 5B). There was no circadian variation of plasma ACTH Fenbendazole levels in WARs. Plasma corticosterone values after ACTH stimulus were significantly higher in WARs (19.0 ± 3.6 μg/dl) as compared with Wistar rats (9.2 ± 0.9 μg/dl) (Fig. 6). We demonstrated differences between Wistar rats and WARs in body growth and alterations in responses to activation of the HPA axis. We observed that Wistar control rats have a higher body weight than WARs. Although smaller than Wistar, WARs showed higher adrenal gland weight. Histopathology and morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the adrenal cortical fasciculate layer in WARs, which is consistent with the functional alterations found in the HPA axis, such as higher glucocorticoid release after ACTH stimulus in WARs.

The data from 1978–1995 reliably describes the wave properties in

The data from 1978–1995 reliably describes the wave properties in this region, while in the data gathered using another device in 1993–2003 the overall behaviour of ZD1839 ic50 the wave height is more or less adequate but the periods are not usable ( Broman et al. 2006). In general, the data constitute

one of the most valuable data sets for the Baltic Sea because of the long temporal coverage and good resolution (1 h when available). Historically, the majority of wave information was obtained by means of visual observations. Ship-based observations of open sea wave properties are consistent with those shown by the instrumental records and have been extensively used for estimates of wave climate changes in the open ocean (Gulev & Hasse 1998, 1999, Gulev et al. 2003). Visual wave observations from coastal sites have been less frequently used for wave climate studies. Such data pose intrinsic quality and interpretation problems (Soomere & Zaitseva 2007, Zaitseva-Pärnaste et al. 2009): they contain a large fraction of subjectivity, properly represent only wave properties in the immediate nearshore and for a limited range of directions, and frequently miss long-wave systems (Orlenko et al. (eds.) 1984). They have a poor temporal

resolution, often contain extensive gaps caused by inappropriate weather or ice conditions and fail to adequately Alectinib MYO10 represent extreme wave conditions. Their basic advantage is the large temporal coverage: regular observations started in the mid-1950s at many locations on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and have been carried out using a unified procedure until today (Soomere & Zaitseva 2007). Thus, historical visual wave data from the eastern and north-eastern (downwind) parts of the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland do indeed form an extremely valuable

data set for the identification of changes in the local wave climate. Wave observations at three Lithuanian coastal sites started more than half a century ago but only a small fraction of the diaries for 1992–2008 have been analysed in the international literature (Kelpšaitė et al. 2008, 2011). The Palanga (55°55′N, 21°03′E) and Klaipėda (55°42′N, 21°07′E) observation sites are open to predominant wind directions from south-west to N-NW. At both sites, the water depth in the observation area (about 400–500 m from the coast) was 6–7 m and the observer was standing about 3 m above sea level. The observation site at Nida (55°18′N, 21°00′E) was fully open to waves approaching only from west to N-NW. The observer stood on a turret located 7 m above sea level and observed waves about 700 m from the coastline where the water depth was 6–7 m. Visual observation sites on the coast of Estonia are located on the island of Vilsandi, on the Pakri Peninsula and at Narva-Jõesuu.