RPMI 1640 medium

RPMI 1640 medium see more containing 10% FBS was replaced by serum-free Opti-MEM (GIBCO, Invitrogen, USA) at 8 h later. HiPerFect Transfection Reagent and Negative control siRNA were purchased from Qiagen Technology Co. Ltd (Shanghai, China). Transfection compounds were prepared in three groups as follows: siRNA group (100 μl Opti-MEM, 6 μl HiPerFect Transfection Reagent and 5 μl JMJD2A siRNA), negative control group (100 μl Opti-MEM, 6 μl HiPerFect Transfection Reagent and 5 μl negative control siRNA) and blank control group (100 μl Opti-MEM). Transfection compounds were placed at room temperature for 10 minutes and then dropped onto 6-well plates. Bulk volume of the compounds

was 2200 μl per well. Both Opti-MEM and transfection compounds were replaced by complete medium at 24 h after transfection. FAM-siRNA was transfected to measure the efficiency of transfection simultaneously according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Quantitative real-time PCR Total RNA of three groups was extracted respectively with the RNAiso Reagent kit (TaKaRa, Dalian, China) at 48 h after transfection. cDNA was Selleck BMS202 generated by reverse transcription of 2 μg of total RNA using random primers and PrimeScript RT Master Mix Perfect Real Time (TaKaRa, Dalian, China) in a total reaction volume of 40 μl according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The sequences of forward and reverse oligonucleotide primers, specific to JMJD2A and housekeeping genes, were designed

using Primer5 software. The primers Resminostat used are: 5′-TGTGCTGTGCTCCTGTAG -3′ and 5′-GTCTCCTTCCTCTCCATCC -3′ for JMJD2A; 5′-TGACGCTGGGGCTGGCATTG -3′ and 5′-GCTCTTGCTGGGGCTGGTGG -3′ for GAPDH. Primers were synthesised by Shanghai Daweike Biotechnology Co. Ltd (Shanghai, China). Real-time quantitative PCR was performed in an ABI PRISM 7500 Real-Time System. A 10-fold dilution of each cDNA was amplified in a 20-μl volume, using the SYBR Premix Ex TaqTM Perfect Real Time (TaKaRa, Dalian, China), with 0.2 μM final concentrations of each primer.

PCR cycle conditions were 95°C for 30 s, and 40 cycles of 95°C for 5 s and 60°C for 34 s. The amplification specificity was evaluated with melting curve analysis. Threshold cycle Ct, which correlates inversely with the target mRNA levels, was calculated using the second derivative maximum algorithm provided by the iCycler software. For JMJD2A, the mRNA levels were normalized to GAPDH mRNA levels [9]. Western blot At 72 h after transfection, cells in different NF-��B inhibitor treatment groups were homogenized in Western blot analysis buffer containing 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl, 1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 1 mM PMSF, 0.28 kU/L aprotinin, 50 mg/L leupeptin, 1 mM benzamidine and 7 mg/L pepstain A. The homogenate was then centrifuged at 12, 000 rpm for 10 min at 4°C and the supernatant was retained and preserved at -80°C for later use. Protein concentration was determined using a BCA kit (Pierce).

80% to 23 74%, and the healing rates at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h (p <

80% to 23.74%, and the healing rates at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h (p < 0.001). By Sotrastaurin mouse contrast, the healing rate of NPC 5-8 F cells was not affected by treatment of lipofectamine alone and transfection of pEGFP-C3 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA (p > 0.05). Figure 6 Effect of PinX1 on wound healing ability of selleck kinase inhibitor nasopharyngeal carcinoma

5-8 F cells in scratch assay. Cells transfected with pEGFP-C3-PinX1 (a), pEGFP-C3 (b) and PinX1-FAM-siRNA(e), treated with lipofactamine alone (c), and untreated (d) were inoculated in 6-well plates pre-coated with collagen IV, cultured in media containing 10% newborn calf serum till forming monolayer, then scratched and photographed at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 36 h after scratching. The results show that overexpression of PinX1 by transfection of pEGFP-C3-PinX1 significantly increased the wound healing time click here of NPC 5-8 F cells, while downregulation of PinX1 by transfection of FAM-siRNA reduced has no effect on wound healing. We then examined the effect of PinX1 on hTERT mRNA level and telomerase activity. As shown in Tables 4 and 5 and Figures 7 and 8, overexpression of Pin X1 by transfection of pEGFP-C3-PinX1 significantly reduced hTERT mRNA level by 21% and decreased

telomerase activity in NPC 5-8 F cells (p = 0.000). By contrast, reduced PinX1 by transfection of PinX1-FAM-siRNA had effects on neither hTERT mRNA SPTLC1 level nor telomerase activity in NPC 5-8 F cells (p > 0.05). In addition, hTERT mRNA level and telomerase activity in NPC 5-8 F cells were not affected by transfection of pEGFP-C3 and treatment of lipofectamine alone. Table 4 hTERT

mRNA level in each group Sample hTERT mRNA F P pEGFP-C3-PinX1 0.789 ± 0.024* 117.689 0.000 pEGFP-C3 0.978 ± 0.011     Lipofectamine alone 0.987 ± 0.014     Untreated 1.000 ± 0.000     PinX1-FAM-siRNA 1.001 ± 0.085**     * vs untreated, P < 0.001, ** vs untreated, P > 0.05. hTERT mRNA level was normalized to GAPDH. Table 5 Telomerase activity in NPC cells Samples Telomerase activity F P pEGFP-C3-PinX1 36227.63 ± 2181.748* 53.816 0.000 pEGFP-C3 58346.993 ± 2181.748     Lipofectamine alone 59697.199 ± 2181.748     Untreated 62552.354 ± 2181.748     PinX1-FAM-siRNA 63600.608 ± 2181.748**     * vs untreated, P < 0.001; ** vs untreated, P > 0.05. Figure 7 Effects of PinX1 on hTERT mRNA level in NPC 5-8 F cells. PinX1 mRNA levels in NPC 5-8 F cells transfected with (a) pEGFP-C3-PinX1, (b) with pEGFP-C3, (c) treated with lipofectamine alone, (d) untreated and (e) transfected with PinX1-FAM-siRNA were measured in RT-PCR and normalized to internal control GAPDH. Data were presented as mean value of three experiments showing that overexpression of PinX1 significantly decreased hTERT mRNA level. Figure 8 Effect of PinX1 on telomerase activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

An ankle arthrodesis had been performed at another clinic 15 mont

An ankle arthrodesis had been performed at another clinic 15 months ago, but union was not achieved, and therefore, she underwent further surgery 12 months ago to fix her ankle. This treatment also failed resulting in nonunion, and so the woman was instructed to wear a patellar tendon-bearing brace for her ankle instability and pain (Fig. 2a, b). Her laboratory data, including serum levels of alkaline phosphate, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus, were normal, but her level of 1.25 vitamin D3 was low, and her left femoral bone density

was extremely low (0.54 mg/cm2) and 2.0 standard deviations below the normal value for her age (Table 1). Fig. 1 Radiographs of the femur. this website a 3D computed tomography images revealed an oblique fracture of the proximal shaft of

the femur. b Plain film taken 2 weeks after surgery. Callus formation is visible around the fracture site. c Plain film taken 12 weeks after surgery. Large callus and consolidation are visible Fig. 2 Radiographs of the femur. a Plain film of the ankle with Charcot arthropathy before arthrodesis. b Plain film taken before teriparatide therapy was initiated showing atrophic Necrostatin-1 nonunion of the ankle. c Plain film and sagittal CT images showing atrophic nonunion of the ankle after multiple arthrodesis operations. d Plain film and sagittal CT image taken after 12 weeks of teriparatide therapy showing complete healing of nonunion Thiamet G Table 1 Laboratory data before and after teriparatide therapy   Reference Range, Age-adjusted Pretreatment After 3 months Protein (g/dl) Total 6.7–8.3 7.5 7.2 Albumin 3.9–4.9 3.1 3.5 ALP (IU/l) 104–338 281 1033 BUN (mg/dl) 8.0–20.0 21.7 19.1 Cre (mg/dl) 0.36–1.06 0.67 0.61 Na (mEq/l) 136–147 136 134 K (mEq/l) 3.6–5.0 4.6 4.9 Cl (mEq/l) 98–109 94 99 Ca (mEq/l) 8.8–10.2

9.8 9.1 IP (mEq/l) 2.5–4.5 4.1 3.6 Mg (mEq/l) 1.8–2.4 2 1.9 HbA1c (%) 4.6–6.2 13.5 13.2 ACTH (pg/ml) 7.2–63.3 22.4   Intact-PTH (pg/ml) 10–65 31   Selleck PRI-724 Calcitonin (pg/ml) 15–86 35   1.25-Vit D3 (pg/ml) 20–60 12 72 NTx (nmol BCE/mmol・Cr) 8–70 189 327 D-Pyr (nM/mM・Cr) 2.8–7.6 31.8 21.6 We treated the femoral shaft fracture with intramedullary nail fixation 29 days after the fracture occurred, because her chronic heart failure was too poor to allow for immediate surgery. We initiated teriparatide (20-μg subcutaneous injection daily) and alfacalcidol (1-μg oral administration daily) immediately after surgery because of severe osteoporosis and in an attempt to accelerate healing of the femoral fracture. There was no immobilization of the femur, but a non-weight-bearing period of 4 weeks was implemented postoperatively. From 2 weeks after the initiation of teriparatide therapy, plain radiography began showing callus formation on the femoral shaft fracture, and after 12 weeks, almost complete healing of the fractured bone was observed (Fig. 1b, c).

For example, we observed no considerable differences in the isola

For KU-57788 manufacturer example, we observed no considerable differences in the isolation times and places

between the only human isolates (N010024, MT03) and the other strains isolated from Focus M. However, we did find a marked difference in MT. In previous studies, epidemiological investigations and traditional ecological typing studies confirmed that this case was imported from Focus C [22, 23]. In this study, N010024 was significantly different from the other strains isolated from Focus M, but had very similar MT with the strains from Focus C and gathered with them in the same subgroup. These results coincided with the conclusion of epidemiological investigations and the ecological typing, which further supported MLVA as a bacterial typing method suitable for field epidemiological investigations. There were cross-types AZD9291 molecular weight among the MTs of strains from different foci, with MT09 and MT19 being the most prominent. Foci that contained the same MT were geographically close to each other (Figure 3). For example, Foci C, D, F, and J contained MT09, and Foci C,

D, and K contained MT19, indicating that there were close relationships among the strains of adjacent foci. It is MLN2238 possible that these strains have the same source. Foci C, D, G, and K have locations adjacent to the border and even similar topography, climate conditions and hosts. The Marmota Himalayana plague focus of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [24] was sub-divided into four foci in recent years [11]. Cluster analysis showed that majority of the strains in the four foci were in complex 1, indicating a close relationship.

Therefore, we suggest that more accurate results will be obtained by combining the four foci in a unit when performing epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis. Foci A, B, and K are in Xinjiang province (Figure 1). The strains from Foci A and B were in the long branch of complex 1 and obviously different from other strains isolated in China. On the PLEK2 contrary, most strains from Focus K were together with the strains from foci around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Foci A and B are adjacent to the Central Asia foci. Due to the lack of strains outside China in this study, it is impossible to provide a detailed and integrated relationship between the strains in Xinjiang and those of the Central Asia. However, we can confirm that there is a long genetic distance between strains of Foci A, B and other domestic strains isolated in China. To date, all the strains from Foci L and M belonged to biovar Microtus, except for one imported strain (N010024). Microtus is a newly-identified biovar that is phenotypically and genotypically different from the other three biovars [9]. Our results showed that MLVA could not only differentiate between Microtus and the other three biovars, but also divided the Microtus strains into two subclusters containing strains from foci L and M respectively.

In a similar manner, a Perl script was implemented to count the n

In a similar manner, a Perl script was implemented to count the number of bipartitions present in the whole-genome Akt inhibitor topology that were absent in the alternative topology (i.e. difference in resolution, denoted res) and to normalise the output to vary between 0 and 1. As a reference, RF distances (also known as symmetric differences) implemented in the Treedist software [78] were used. To investigate the success of the marker tree to allocate a strain to its corresponding sub-species family (according to the whole genome phylogeny), bipartition scoring in the Consense software was used and the output was compared to the pre-defined

subspecies bipartitions according to the whole-genome tree. In addition, we investigated

whether strains were assigned to the corresponding main clades of the entire Francisella genus, reporting the proportion of misidentified strains on each clade. Finally, we considered the average bootstrap support of each marker tree. It is important to consider a statistical test for topological incongruence as stochastic effects in the evolution of the sequences results in incongruence between the compared trees. To address this issue, we employed the Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) test [85], which is a non-parametric test for determining whether there are significant differences between conflicting topologies in specific sequence data. The null hypothesis of the SH test Ferroptosis inhibitor assumed that the compared topologies were equally probable given the data. Here, we Selleckchem Barasertib tested the marker topologies and the whole-genome topology on each respective marker sequence using the phyML software package by fixing the topologies and optimising the substitution model and crotamiton branch-length parameters. The SH test was performed within the CONSEL software package [86], which takes the output from phyML as input. Since multifurcations in topologies are strongly penalised in the phyML software, we resolved the topologies into bifurcating trees using the R package ape [84]. The substitution model

selected in the phyML analysis was based on the preferred substitution model of the jModelTest analysis. To test whether clades differed in incongruence or resolution, a Wilcoxon rank sum test with continuity correction was utilised, implemented in the R statistical package [73]. We used Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ, to quantify correlations between metrics and the average pairwise nucleotide diversity, π, of the clades. Optimisation procedure Since the number of included sequence markers in this study was moderate, we searched through all possible combinations of markers (i.e. an exhaustive search). We performed two separate analyses, one for each of the metrics used: incongruence and difference in resolution between topologies. The marker configuration(s) resulting in the lowest metric value were saved.

Sap sugars are presumably the main C and energy source for the RP

Sap sugars are presumably the main C and energy source for the RPW larvae and its microbiota, that is dominated by fermenting bacteria to obtain several metabolites including lactate and

acetate. Acknowledgements The authors thank Maria Grazia Selonsertib solubility dmso Cusimano, Rosella Maggio and Flavia Contino for technical assistance in bacterial isolation, DNA extraction and amplification, and Smad inhibitor control of DNA quality for pyrosequencing, respectively. This work was partially financed by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Education (PRIN Program 2008 prot. 200847CA28-002) and by the University of Palermo (project FFR 2012 ATE-0322 N.2785). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Phoenix canariensis infested by Rhynchophorous ferrugineus (A and B); different infested palms cut in the higher part are shown. Larvae of the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, found inside the body of the infested palm (C). Female adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophorinae) (D). this website (PDF 171 KB) Additional file 2: Complete results of 16S pyrotag sequence clustering and taxonomic assignment by RDP of clusters and singletons at 90%, 95% and 97% ID. (XLS 93 KB) Additional file 3: Relative

abundance of bacterial families in the gut of RPW larvae as detected by pyrosequencing of the 16SrRNA gene V2 region. (JPEG 46 KB) Additional file 4: Phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene amplicons clustered at 97% consensus. The tree was constructed by neighbour-joining method and Jukes Cantor distance matrix using the arb software. Bootstraps were calculated over 1000 random repetitions: values >60 and < =75 are shown as open circles, whereas values >75 are shown as filled circles. Sequences obtained in this study are indicated in bold. The scale bar represents 10% sequence divergence. (PDF 231 KB) Additional file 5: Phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences of RPW gut isolates and related sequences, as determined Selleck Rapamycin by distance

Jukes-Cantor analysis. One thousand boostrap analyses were conducted and values greater than 60% are reported. Two Archaea sequences of Methanopirus kandleri and Korarchaeum cryptophilum were used as outgroup. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per nucleotide position. Colors indicate the isolation site or the isolation procedure described in this work and in [2]. Blue: RPW gut isolates on NA; Red: frass bacteria; Green: palm bacterial endophytes; Fuchsia: gut isolates obtained from enrichment cultures on CMC; Yellow: larval cuticle bacteria isolated from sterilization control plates. Isolate_RPWenrichAAB* was isolated from the RPW larval gut from enrichment cultures set for for Acetic Acid Bacteria isolation [42].

The ERIC-PCR technique uses higher annealing temperatures (approx

The ERIC-PCR technique uses higher annealing temperatures (approximately 50–58°C) and longer primers (20 nucleotides) than the RAPD method. These primers are specific for SN-38 areas of the genome that are highly conserved and include an inverted repeat. The RAPD assay uses low stringency conditions of approximately 30–36°C annealing temperatures and short (10 nucleotide) primers. One or more of these arbitrarily chosen RAPD primers can anneal at multiple locations throughout the genome and amplify many products of the template DNA. In addition to genomic-based methods, protein-based methods offer a different and complementary approach.

Whole cell protein (WCP; [29–32] profiles or outer membrane protein profiles [33] of H. parasuis, which use a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

(SDS-PAGE) technique have been described. These studies suggested that isolates from systemic sites had unique protein profiles. Isolates from respiratory sites had different selleck kinase inhibitor protein profiles than the systemic isolates had. The 36–38.5 kDa proteins were described as virulence markers based on the isolation site of the strain [32]. This work analyzed the DNA and protein profiles of 46 H. parasuis reference and field isolates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA is a molecular typing technique that is often used to differentiate closely related strains. It is especially sensitive to strain variation when three optimized primers are employed [34–36]. Random amplified polymorphic

DNA 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase may detect single base changes in genomic DNA and genetic maps consisting of RAPD markers can be generated more efficiently than by using RFLP targeted PCR-based methods [28]. Intra-specific variation in the RAPD patterns can be observed for each primer and the sequence SAHA HDAC concentration complexity of small plasmids is unlikely to contribute to the patterns [26]. However, bacteriophage and larger plasmids with transposons could possibly mediate horizontal gene transfer between strains and increase RAPD heterogeneity [18]. By using the relatively simple and economical RAPD technique, known primer sequences can be utilized by different laboratories, making it a standardized technique and amenable to epidemiological studies. However, interpretation of gel electrophoresis results could introduce some variability between laboratories. The objectives of this study were to compare the relatedness of the reference strains and field isolates based on the RAPD and WCP lysate profiles and to determine if clustering that occurred was related to the site of isolation or to the pathogenicity of the strain. Results Comparison of RAPD profiles and pattern analysis Of the three primers used for genotyping, primer 2 had an intermediate number of bands; primer 7 had the most polymorphic DNA bands; and primer 12 had the least number of polymorphic DNA bands (Figure 1).

Alternatively, SseF-TIP60 interaction may alter the acetylation a

Alternatively, SseF-TIP60 interaction may alter the acetylation activity of TIP60, thus affecting TIP60 related functions. Supporting this hypothesis, our preliminary in vitro acetylation assays suggest that SseF increased the histone acetylation activity of TIP60, especially for histone H2. Histone is the only known substrate for Tip60. Total histone acetylation

was not increased in infected cells (data not shown). This is consistent with the low amount of SseF translocated. It is possible that local SseF concentration may be higher in infected cells. Although TIP60 is not known to be learn more directly involved in vesicle trafficking, it is possible that TIP60 affected histone acetylation leading to altered expression of trafficking-related proteins. Interestingly, our preliminary data showed that knock down of TIP60 reduced continuous Sif formation, a phenotype Temsirolimus mouse similar to that of the sseF null mutant (Additional file 1: Fig. S1). Future experiments are required to determine whether the increase in histone acetylation leads to increases in TIP60-mediated downstream functions. This may ultimately

help us to understand how SseF interact with TIP60 to promote Salmonella replication inside the host cells. Conclusions We found that TIP60, an acetyltransferase, interacts with Salmonella SseF. We further showed that the TIP60 acetylation activity was increased in the presence of SseF, and TIP60 was upregulated upon Salmonella infection. More importantly, TIP60 is required selleck kinase inhibitor for efficient intracellular Thiamet G Salmonella replication in macrophages. Our study demonstrated that Salmonella may use SseF to exploit the host TIP60 acetyltransferase activity to promote efficient Salmonella replication inside host cells. Acknowledgements Research was supported by NSFC grant 30628001 to D. Z., and

by “”863″” grant 2006AA02A253 to D.Q. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: TIP60 is required for continuous Salmonella -induced filament formation. HeLa cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing TIP60 siRNA or a control vector expressing the scrambled siRNA. Transfected cells were infected with wild-type Salmonella. Infected cells were stained for TIP60 (red) or LAMP2 (green). Arrows indicates Sifs, and arrowheads indicate the “”pseudo-Sifs”". (TIFF 575 KB) References 1. Utley RT, Cote J: The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2003, 274:203–236.PubMed 2. Ikura T, Ogryzko VV, Grigoriev M, Groisman R, Wang J, Horikoshi M, Scully R, Qin J, Nakatani Y: Involvement of the TIP60 histone acetylase complex in DNA repair and apoptosis. Cell 2000,102(4):463–473.PubMedCrossRef 3. Kamine J, Elangovan B, Subramanian T, Coleman D, Chinnadurai G: Identification of a cellular protein that specifically interacts with the essential cysteine region of the HIV-1 Tat transactivator. Virology 1996,216(2):357–366.PubMedCrossRef 4.

The statistical analysis software package ClinProTools was applie

The statistical analysis software package ClinProTools was applied in this study. Reproducibility of the data was assured by applying two independently generated datasets of the same strains to ClinProTools

analysis. The software automatically processes, recalibrates and compares the loaded spectra using an internal algorithm [47]. The processed peaks are then sorted according to their statistical separation strength [48]. Using this method, we were able to detect differentiating peaks for the serovars used in this study namely L. interrogans serovar Pomona and Copenhageni, L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa and L. borgpetersenii serovar Saxkoebing and MRT67307 concentration Tarassovi (Table 4 and Table 5). Minor discrepancies in the protein profiles were present for IWP-2 research buy the serovars Australis and Icterohaemorragiae. Based on the statistical method PCA, one additional leptospiral strain, L. borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe, formed a distant cluster with regard to the other strains (Figure 3). A L. borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe specific peak at 6,003 Da was also detected by applying ClinProTools analysis in one of the two datasets. Since it could not be verified by the second dataset, it has not been further considered for identification. No differentiation was observed for the genomospecies

L. kirschneri. Our findings lead to the conclusion that it is possible to discriminate our applied leptospiral strains on the basis of differences in their protein peak patterns, but we cannot claim this for other serovars or strains. Strain-specific differentiation using MALDI-TOF MS analysis has previously been shown by different studies [49–51] and discrimination of different serovars

of Salmonella enterica has been postulated before [46, 52]. This supports the hypothesis that MALDI-TOF MS is an important and useful technology for the identification and subtyping of bacterial isolates. Serovars of leptospiral Amino acid strains are determined by antigenic variations in the LPS [15]. MALDI-TOF MS, however, mainly detects ribosomal proteins [45]. Consequently, we cannot claim conclusively that we identified universal serovar-specific peaks since we used a selected panel of serovars in this study. We suppose that the observed peak differences for some strains indicate serovar affiliation. To confirm this finding a larger panel of strains and serovars needs to be tested. The results of gene sequencing confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification of all Leptospiral strains. The dendrogram of the reference spectra matched the phylogenetic trees constructed, using16S rRNA sequences and MLST data (Figures 4 and 5). Minimal discrepancies that Selleck AZD6738 occurred within single clades can be explained on the basis of the used target genes, since MALDI-TOF MS mainly detects ribosomal proteins [45]. That is why MSPs dendrograms are closely comparable to phylogentic trees based on 16S rRNA sequencing [23, 26, 35].

Osteoporos Int 19:449–458PubMedCrossRef

Osteoporos Int 19:449–458PubMedCrossRef

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