2004). The relative small size (20 kb) of this biosynthetic cluster of citrinin (Sakai et al. 2008) might also be beneficial for maintaining it in the genome during evolution. Another scenario is that horizontal gene transfer of the citrinin
biosynthetic gene cluster occurred several times during the evolution of the series Citrina. The evolution of these biosynthetic genes remains unknown and more research is needed. Besides citrinin and a series of derivates or precursors of citrinin (Clark et al. 2006; Wakana et al. 2006; Lu et al. Selleck GSI-IX 2008; Zhu et al. 2009), several other metabolites are also claimed to be produced by P. citrinum, including compactins (Endo et al. 1976), agroclavine-1 and epoxyagroclavine-1 (Kozlovskiĭ et al. 2003a, 2005), asterric acid (Turner 1971; Turner and Aldridge 1983), cathestatins (Woo et al. 1995), citrinadin A (Tsuda et al. 2004; Mugishima et al. 2005), quinocitrinines and ergot alkaloids (Kozlovskiĭ et al. 2005), quinolactacins (Kakinuma et al. 2000; Takahashi et al. 2000; Kim et al. 2001), quinolactacide
(Abe et al. 2005), tanzawaic acids (Kuramoto et al. 1997), scalusamides A-C (Tsuda et al. 2005), perinadine A (Sasaki et al. 2005), cyclocitrinols (Kozlovskiĭ et al. 2000a; Amagata et al. 2003), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (Price and Worth 1974), 2,3,4-trimethyl-5,7-dihydroxybenzofuran (Chen et al. 2002) and gibberellins (Khan et al. 2008). learn more Of these metabolites, we have confirmed the production of citrinin and some of its derivatives, quinolactacins (= quinocitrinins), and citrinadins. Compactins have been incorrectly linked to “P. citrinum” NRRL 8082 and re-examination of this isolate showed it was a P. solitum (Frisvad and Filtenborg 1983). Clavine ergot alkaloids and citrinin have been linked to P. citrinum,
VKM F-1079 (Kozlovskiĭ et al. 2000b), but the strain that was used has been re-identified as P. gorlenkoanum. Penicillium sizovae was claimed to produce agroclavine-I and epoxyagroclavine-I and 1,1-bis(6,8-dimethyl-8,9-epoxy-5a,10e)-ergoline, Thalidomide a dimer of epoxyagroclavine-I (Kozlovskiĭ et al. 1986). The P. citrinum strain VKM FW-800 was isolated from 1.8 to 3 million years old Arctic permafrost sediments. This strain produces quinolactacin (= quinocitrinin) and the ergot alkaloids agroclavine-I and epoxyagroclavine-I, which indicates that this isolate is not P. citrinum, and if it is not a contaminant, then it maybe a ancestor of the group of fungi treated here. Of the investigated group of species, P. citrinum is most commonly Dorsomorphin ic50 occurring. This species has a worldwide distribution and has been isolated from various sources, such as soil, indoor environments and foodstuffs. In our study we found that P.