Moreover, carotenoid content increased from the first to the seco

Moreover, carotenoid content increased from the first to the second day, whereas the volatile release decreased, and the OfCCD1 transcript levels displayed steady-state oscillations, suggesting that the substrate availability in the cellular compartments is changing PF-6463922 or other regulatory factors are involved in volatile norisoprenoid formation. Furthermore, the sensory evaluation of the aroma of the model mixtures suggests that the proportionally higher contribution of alpha-ionone and beta-ionone

to total volatile emissions in the evening is probably the reason for the increased perception by humans of the scent emission of Osmanthus flowers.”
“BACKGROUND: The widening gap between the numbers of patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation and the insufficient numbers of organ donors results in the use of “”critical”" donors, so-called marginal donors or extended criteria donors. Data concerning the evaluation of extended

criteria donors (ECD) in Switzerland are sparse.

METHODS: All organ donors in Switzerland between selleck compound 1.1.1998 and 30.6.2009 have been evaluated for special criteria. ECD were defined on the basis of at least one of seven criteria: six DOPKI criteria (ECD-DOPKI) and/or age >= 60 yr (ECD-Age). Once included in the study, special features, short time follow-up (first 7 days after transplantation) and the cold ischaemia time of all the transplanted organs were evaluated.

RESULTS: During the period 1.1.1998 to 30.6.2009, a total of 408 organ donors were classified as ECD, reflecting VE-821 cost 39% of all organ donors in this time period. Despite the fact that all organ donors in this study fulfilled at least one inclusion criterion, the number of recipients with satisfactory primary organ function was always higher than the respective number with a negative primary outcome within the first seven

days after transplantation. A longer cold ischaemia time was associated with organs showing insufficient primary organ function compared to organs with satisfactory primary function. A relevant causal relationship cannot be investigated on the basis of our limited data. In addition, a longer observation period would be necessary to draw a more precise conclusion.

CONCLUSIONS: ECD as defined by DOPKI and/or age represent a high proportion of all organ donors in Switzerland but show a remarkably good outcome.”
“The elasticity, dynamic properties, and superconductivity of alpha, omega, and beta Zr upon compression are investigated by using first-principles methods. Our calculated elastic constants, elastic moduli, and Debye temperatures of alpha and omega phases are in excellent agreement with experiments. Electron-phonon coupling constant lambda and electronic density of states at the Fermi level N (E(F)) are found to increase with pressure for these two hexagonal structures. For cubic beta phase, the critical pressure for mechanical stability is predicted to be 3.13 GPa and at P 4 GPa the low elastic modulus (E = 31.

(C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd Published by Elsevier Ltd

(C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sporadic reports published during the previous decade have documented pregnancies achieved with

transfer of zona-free human embryos. Although the overall efficiency seems to be good and some authors have suggested systematic application for special infertility problems, there have been only a few attempts to compare the benefits of zona-free embryo culture and transfer SNX-5422 purchase with the traditional approach using zona-intact embryos. So far, the majority of instances in which zona-free culture has been applied have occurred accidentally. This review summarizes the known functions of the zona pellucida, analyses natural and artificial situations where its function is compromised, including zona hardening and difficult hatching that seem to be related to in-vitro embryo culture, and discusses possible methods and timing for artificial zona removal. With the availability of in-vitro systems capable of replacing important functions of the zona pellucida, routine use of zona-free culture for the whole in-vitro period, after or even before fertilization, is a realistic possibility with potential additional benefits. Based on the increasing amount of animal studies, a systematic comparison Selleck PARP inhibitor is suggested that may

eventually diminish the handicaps of the in-vitro situation and lead to simplification of manipulations LY2835219 as well as higher success rates after embryo transfer. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report

a case of postsurgical meningitis caused by multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii successfully treated with high doses of ampicillin/sulbactam combined with rifampicin and fosfomycin.”
“Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells and have the ability to self-renew in vitro and to differentiate into cells representing all three germ layers. They provide enormous opportunities for basic research, regenerative medicine as well as drug discovery. The mechanisms that govern ESC fate are not completely understood, so a better understanding and control of ESC self-renewal and differentiation are pivotal for therapeutic applications. In contrast to growth factors and genetic manipulations, small molecules offer great advantages in modulating ESC fate. For instance, they could be conveniently identified through high-throughput screening, work across multiple signalling pathways and affect epigenetic modifications as well. This review focuses on the recent progress in the use of small molecules to regulate ESC self-renewal, differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Influenza virus is associated with a variety of neurological complications, of which the most commonly encountered are seizures and encephalopathy.

In vitro biomechanical investigation of the screw-holding capacit

In vitro biomechanical investigation of the screw-holding capacity.

Objective. To evaluate the effect of repetitive screw-hole use on the insertional torque and retentive strength of vertebral system screws.

Summary and Background Data. Placement and removal of vertebral system screws is sometimes necessary during the surgical procedures in order to assess the walls of the pilot hole. This procedure may compromise the holding capacity of the implant.

Methods. Screws with outer diameter measuring 5, 6, and 7 mm were inserted into wood, polyurethane, polyethylene,

and cancellous bone cylindrical blocks. The pilot holes selleck chemicals llc were made with drills of a smaller, equal, or wider diameter than the

inner screw diameter. Three experimental groups were established based on the number of insertions and reinsertions of the screws and subgroups were created according to the outer diameter SRT1720 cost of the screw and the diameter of the pilot hole used.

Results. A reduction of screw-holding capacity was observed between the first and the following insertions regardless the anchorage material. The pattern of reduction of retentive strength was not similar to the pattern of torque reduction. The pullout strength was more pronounced between the first and the last insertions, while the torque decreased more proportionally from the first to the last insertions.

Conclusion. Insertion and reinsertion of the screws of the vertebral fixation system used in the present

study reduced the insertion torque and screw purchase.”
“Objective-To evaluate outcome after intralesional injection of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) for treatment of superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Design-Retrospective case series.

Animals-40 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedures-Medical records of racehorses with SDF tendonitis treated within 13 weeks after injury by intralesional injection of IGF-I (25 or 50 jig every other day for 4 or 5 treatments) were reviewed. Outcome was determined via analysis of race records, owner follow-up, and examination.

Results-Mean age of the horses was 3.1 years (range, 2 to 7 years), and time from injury to treatment ranged from www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-562271.html 8 to 90 days. Mean +/- SD approximate lesion length on admission was 15.6 +/- 6.0 cm, and mean percentage cross-sectional area of the tendon affected was 26 +/- 18%. Twenty-six of the 40 horses underwent desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the SDF tendon. Echolucency was reduced in 23 of 26 horses by the end of the treatment period. Twenty-one of 34 (62%) horses for which race data were available raced at least once after treatment, including 10 (30%) horses that raced between 1 and 4 times and 11 horses (32%) that raced >= 5 times. Thirteen of 28 (46%) horses had a recurrence of tendonitis or developed tendonitis elsewhere.

84, 95% CI 0 70 to 1 00, P = 0 05) This improvement became stati

84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.00, P = 0.05). This improvement became statistically non-significant (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.03, P = 0.12) when data from two unpublished trials (Goteborg-Ostra and Svendborg) were added to the analysis. After further also adding two additional trials (Beijing, Stockholm) with very short observation periods selleck chemical (until discharge), the difference between acute stroke units and general medical wards on death remained statistically non-significant (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.01, P = 0.06). Furthermore, based

on figures reported by the clinical trials included in this study, a slightly higher proportion of patients became dependent after receiving care in stroke units than those treated in general medical wards – although the difference was not statistically

significant. This result could have an impact on the future demand for healthcare services for individuals that survive a stroke but became dependent on their care-givers.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a well-conducted meta-analysis can produce results that can be of value to policymakers but the choice of inclusion/exclusion criteria and outcomes in this context needs careful consideration. The financing of interventions such as stroke units that increase independency and reduce inpatient CA3 price stays are worthwhile in a context of an ageing population with increasing care needs. One limitation of this study was the selection of trials published in only four languages: English, French, buy NVP-LDE225 Dutch and German. This choice was pragmatic in the context of this study, where the objective was to support health authorities in their decision processes.”
“P>Cricothyrotomy or insertion of a transtracheal

device is a life-saving maneuver that may be performed on an emergent or semi-elective basis as a means of bypassing an obstructed upper airway. A surgeon is trained to perform this life-saving procedure whereas most anesthesiologists are not facile with the scalpel. It is for this reason that many percutaneous devices have been developed for use by surgeons and nonsurgeons alike. Unfortunately, the majority of such devices are designed for use in adults and/or teenagers but are not appropriate for neonates and infants. The unique anatomy of the infant larynx, the small size of the cricothyroid membrane, and the technical difficulty of locating the correct anatomical structures make the use of most of these devices impractical if not outright dangerous in neonates and infants. This paper will review many (but not all) of the available devices, associated literature, pitfalls and dangers. It is emphasized that each clinician should become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of these devices and obtain training with simulators or animal models. A strategy for management of the ‘cannot ventilate, cannot oxygenate, cannot intubate’ situation should be developed with age and size appropriate equipment.


“Background: We sought to identify candidate serum biomark


“Background: We sought to identify candidate serum biomarkers for the detection and surveillance of EOC. Based on RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of patient-derived tumors, highly expressed secreted proteins were identified using a bioinformatic approach.

Methods: RNA-Seq was used to quantify papillary serous ovarian cancer transcriptomes. Paired end sequencing of 22 flash frozen tumors was performed. Sequence alignments were processed with the program ELAND, expression levels with ERANGE and then bioinformatically screened for secreted protein signatures. Serum

samples from women with benign and malignant pelvic masses and serial samples from women during chemotherapy regimens were measured for IGFBP-4 by ELISA. Student’s t Test, ANOVA, and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis.

Results: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4) was consistently present in the top learn more 7.5% of all expressed genes in all tumor samples. We then screened serum samples to determine if increased tumor expression correlated with serum expression. In an initial discovery set of 21 samples, IGFBP-4 levels were found to be elevated in patients, including those with early stage disease and normal CA125 levels. In a larger and independent validation set (82 controls, 78 cases),

IGFBP-4 levels were significantly increased (p < 5 x 10(-5)). IGFBP-4 levels were similar to 3x greater in women with malignant pelvic masses compared GDC-0994 order to women with benign masses. ROC sensitivity was 73% at 93% specificity (AUC 0.816). In women receiving chemotherapy, average IGFBP-4 levels were below the ROC-determined threshold and lower in NED patients compared to AWD patients.

Conclusions: P505-15 clinical trial This study, the first to our knowledge to use RNA-Seq for biomarker discovery, identified IGFBP-4 as overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients. Beyond this, these studies identified two additional intriguing findings. First, IGFBP-4 can be elevated in early stage disease without elevated CA125. Second, IGFBP-4 levels are significantly elevated with

malignant versus benign disease. These findings provide the rationale for future validation studies.”
“BACKGROUND: Mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) syndrome (MIRS) has been considered a clinicopathologic entity associated with a variety of clinically severe conditions with decreased intestinal blood flow and has been known to induce I/R damage in various organs. Sirolimus (SRL), a macrolide antibiotic isolated from a strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, is a potent and nonnephrotoxic immunosuppressant.

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of sirolimus on MIRS-induced I/R damage in renal, intestinal, pulmonary, and hepatic tissues in an experimental rat model.

METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 to 8 weeks and weighing 280 (+/- 20 g), were studied.

001) or dynamic contrast- enhanced and T2-weighted (P = 001) ima

001) or dynamic contrast- enhanced and T2-weighted (P = .001) imaging; T2-weighted imaging combined with fused T2-weighted and DW imaging also was better than dynamic contrast- enhanced and T2-weighted imaging (P < .001). Tumor apparent diffusion coefficients were 0.60-1.32 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (median, 0.75 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec), with no significant correlation with the depth of myometrial invasion (P = .31, r = -0.15).

Conclusion: Fused T2-weighted Bcl-2 inhibitor and high-b-value DW images at 3 T can

provide accurate information for preoperative evaluation of myometrial invasion. (c) RSNA, 2009″
“The existence of nonlinear objects of the vortex type in two-dimensional magnetic systems presents itself as one of the most promising candidates for the construction CH5183284 datasheet of nanodevices, useful for storing data, and for the construction of reading and writing magnetic heads. The vortex appears as the ground state of a magnetic nanodisk whose magnetic moments interact via the dipole-dipole potential D Sigma[(S) over right arrow (i).(S) over right arrow (j)-3((S) over right arrow (i).(r) over cap (ij))]/r(ij)(3)

and the exchange interaction (-J Sigma(S) over right arrow (i).(S) over right arrow (j))(.) In this work it is investigated the conditions for the formation of vortices in nanodisks in triangular, square, and hexagonal lattices as a function of the size of the lattice and of the strength of the dipole interaction D. Our results show that there is a “”transition”" line separating the vortex state from a capacitorlike state. This line has a finite size scaling form depending on the size, L, of the system as D(c)=D(0) +1/A(1+BL(2)). This behavior is obeyed by the three types of lattices.

Inside the vortex phase it is possible to identify two types of vortices separated by a constant, selleck kinase inhibitor D=D(c), line: An in-plane and an out-of-plane vortex. We observed that the out-of-plane phase does not appear for the triangular lattice. In a two layer system the extra layer of dipoles works as an effective out-of-plane anisotropy inducing a large S(z) component at the center of the vortex. Also, we analyzed the mechanism for switching the out-of-plane vortex component. Contrary to some reported results, we found evidences that the mechanism is not a creation-annihilation vortex anti-vortex process. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3318605]“
“Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether the enhancement patterns of pathologically proved clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) measured on clinical dynamic contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images permit accurate diagnosis of RCC subtype.

To investigate the potential role of Pitx2, we made the recombina

To investigate the potential role of Pitx2, we made the recombinant adenovirus expressing Pitx2, then transduced into the cultured ORS cells. Interestingly, Pitx2 induced the expression of keratin 16 and 17, indicating that Pitx2 activates ORS cells towards the follicular differentiation pathway preferentially.

Conclusion: Our results implicate the potential importance of Pitx2 as a beta-catenin downstream modulator in hair growth control. (C) 2008

Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Objectives: To determine whether bioluminescence imaging of human lung cancer cells growing in an orthotopic murine model provides a sensitive tool for monitoring tumor progression in athymic nude mice.

Methods: Human lung cancer (A549) cells were stably transfected with the firefly luciferase gene and inoculated into the right lung PD0332991 manufacturer of athymic nude mice. Seven days after inoculation tumor growth was evaluated using the Kodak in-vivo Imaging System FX and continued to be monitored on a weekly basis.

Results: In duplicate experiments, human lung cancer tumors formed in 90% of animal’s injected orthotopically. The mean intensity of the bioluminescence signal emitted from the

lung cancer cells increased logarithmically during the course of study. Mice with positive bioluminescence signaling had confirmed tumors by microscopic histological analysis. AZD6244 Bioluminescence activity had a strong correlation with the tumor volume as determined histologically.

Conclusions: Bioluminescence intensity directly correlates with tumor volume and therefore offers a reliable approach for detecting and monitoring the growth of human lung cancer cells in orthotopic murine models. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“DM is an independent risk factor for the development of HF and its presence confers an adverse prognosis for those already diagnosed

with HFTZDs are potent insulin-sensitisers associated with a number of beneficial cardiovascular effects. However,TZDs increase renal LDN-193189 order sodium and water reabsorption, leading to fluid retention and overt signs of HF in patients with diabetes. Rosiglitazone has also been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. However, pioglitazone may have macrovascular benefits. The majority of data on the cardiovascular safety of TZDs are based on non-cardovascular outcome trials and meta-analyses. Concerns regarding the risk of HF and cardiovascular safety of TZDs have led to restrictions on their use in patients with HE This review addresses the latest evidence for HF with each of the TZD drugs currently available and reflects on the current guidelines regarding their prescription in at-risk patients.

Data Collection and Analysis

Duplicate

Data Collection and Analysis

Duplicate see more trial assessment, selection and data abstraction.

Results

Twenty-two trials involving 8,485 women. Continent pregnant women (prevention) who had intensive antenatal PFMT were less likely to report urinary incontinence up to 6 months

after delivery (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.95). Incontinent postnatal women (treatment) who received PFMT were less likely to report urinary incontinence 12 months after delivery (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.35-1.03). In a mixed population (women with and without incontinence symptoms in late pregnancy or after delivery), PFMT did not reduce incontinence rates after delivery.

Authors’ Conclusions

For women who are continent during pregnancy, PFMT may prevent urinary

incontinence up to 6 months after delivery. The extent to which mixed prevention and treatment approaches to PFMT in the postnatal period are effective is less clear that is, offering advice on PFMT to all pregnant or postpartum women whether they have incontinence symptoms or not. There was little evidence about long-term effects for either urinary or fecal incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:269-276, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose: To examine the added value of an algorithmic combination of visual-analogue thermometers compared with the Distress Thermometer (DT) when attempting GW572016 to detect depression, anxiety or distress in early cancer.

Methods: We report Classification and Regression Tree and logistic regression analyses SBE-β-CD purchase of the new five-domain Emotion Thermometers tool. This is a combination of five visual-analogue scales in the form of four mood domains (distress, anxiety, depression, anger) as well as need for help. 130 patients attending for their first chemotherapy treatment were assessed. We calculated optimal accuracy for each domain alone and in combination against several criterion standards.

Results:

When attempting to diagnose depression the Depression Thermometer (DepT) used alone was the optimal approach, but when attempting to detect broadly defined distress or anxiety then a combination of thermometers was most accurate. The DepT was significantly more accurate in detecting depression than the DT. For broadly defined distress a combination of depression, anger and help thermometers was more accurate than the DT alone. For anxiety, while the anxiety thermometer (AnxT) improves upon the DT alone, a combination of the DepT and AnxT are optimal. In each case the optimal strategy allowed the detection of at least an additional 9%, of individuals. However, combinations are more laborious to score. In settings where the simplest possible option is preferred the most accurate single thermometer might be preferable as a first stage assessment.

Conclusion: The DT can be improved by specific combinations of simple thermometers that incorporate depression, anxiety, anger and help. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd “
“Objectives: The aim of

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Objectives: The aim of the study was to predict human intestinal permeability and the fraction absorbed of an oral dose of a promising trioxane anti-malarial drug (CDRI 99/411) using

the single-pass intestinal perfusion technique (SPIP) in rats.

Methods: Effective permeability coefficients (P(eff)) in anaesthetized rats were determined for marker compounds and the trioxane derivative 99/411. Drug solution in perfusion buffer was perfused through intestine with a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min and samples were taken from an outlet tubing at different time points up to 120 min. Drug concentrations in samples were determined using RPHPLC.

Key findings: The effective permeability coefficient values of marker VX-680 mw compounds obtained in rats were compared with published data for human intestinal permeability (P(eff) ((human))) and human fraction absorbed (Fa ((human))) to establish an in-house model. Strong correlations were found between rat and human values for markers buy LCL161 (P(eff (human)) = 1.039 P(eff) ((rat)) – 0.1815; R(2)=0.970 and Fa (human) = 0.1562In (P(eff (rat))) + 0.7232; R(2) = 0.927). Subsequently the human

permeability and fraction dose absorbed in human were predicted for 99/411 using the obtained rat permeability value and established correlations. P(eff) in human predicted from the model was found to be 7.05 x 10(-4) cm/s and F(a) value in human was predicted around 1.

Conclusions: Considering the high correlation of

rat P(eff) values with those of human reported values, it can be concluded that the developed in-house model is reliable and can be used preliminarily, to predict human permeability and fraction dose absorbed of any test compound. JIB-04 nmr From predicted results, 99/411 was found to have high permeability and possibly complete absorption in human.”
“Objective: A close relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and myringosclerosis, which is a common complication of myringotomy, was recently reported. The objective of this study was to measure ROS levels directly in rat tympanic membranes using luminol-aided chemiluminescence (CL) in order to compare the levels of ROS after incisional and radiofrequency (RF) myringotomy.

Methods: Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups of five animals each. Bilateral myringotomies were made using an appropriate myringotomy lancet in Group 1 and RF in Group 2. Group 3 served as the control group with no myringotomy. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, all tympanic membranes were inspected with an otomicroscope and then excised for the measurement of ROS using luminol-aided CL.

Results: The mean ROS level in Group I was significantly higher than that in Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05 for both). The difference in mean ROS level between Groups 2 and 3 was not significant (p > 0.05).

Thiacloprid significantly decreased the mitotic index, proliferat

Thiacloprid significantly decreased the mitotic index, proliferation index, and nuclear

division index for Dactolisib order all concentrations both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 631-641, 2014.”
“Background: Missing data is classified as missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR) or missing not at random (MNAR). Knowing the mechanism is useful in identifying the most appropriate analysis. The first aim was to compare different methods for identifying this missing data mechanism to determine if they gave consistent conclusions. Secondly, to investigate whether the reminder-response data can be utilised to help identify the missing data mechanism.

Methods: Five clinical trial datasets that employed a reminder system at follow-up were used. Some quality of life questionnaires were initially missing, but later recovered through reminders. Four methods of determining the missing data mechanism were applied. Two response data scenarios were considered. Firstly, immediate data only; secondly, all

observed responses (including reminder-response).

Results: In three of five trials the hypothesis tests found evidence against the MCAR assumption. Logistic regression suggested MAR, but was able to use the reminder-collected Selleck S63845 data to highlight potential MNAR data in two trials.

Conclusion: The four methods were consistent in determining the missingness mechanism. One hypothesis test was preferred as it is applicable with intermittent missingness. Some inconsistencies between the two data scenarios were found. Ignoring the reminder data could potentially give a distorted view of the missingness mechanism. Utilising reminder data allowed the possibility

of MNAR to be considered.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in flexible cystoscopes and the diagnostic quality of biopsies for diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder CP-456773 purchase cancer in the outpatients department (OPD). Material and methods. Seventy-three patients (aged 36-91 years) with recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and a medium to high risk of recurrence had a flexible PDD cystoscopy performed in the OPD. The bladder was first examined in standard white light followed by PDD. Results. PDD was superior to white light diagnosis; PDD was positive in 16 patients (22%) where white light showed a normal bladder mucosa. Four of these patients had bladder tumour [4/73, 6%; two carcinoma in situ (CIS), two Ta]. The diagnosis was verified by transurethral resection of the bladder tumour in the operating room. In 20 patients (20/73, 27%) PDD identified additional tumour lesions that were not identified in white light (five CIS, 15 Ta). The false-positive detection rate of PDD was 0.41.