Using this marker, we were able to detect the ae alleles in a bac

Using this marker, we were able to detect the ae alleles in a backcross and its second generation more efficiently (53.3 and 73.3%, respectively) than was possible without marker selection. These data indicate that the marker can be used as a tool to improve selection efficiency and accelerate the cultivation of new varieties of high-amylose maize.”
“The electronic transport behaviors 3-MA clinical trial of (Ni(0.36)Nb(0.24)Zr(0.40))(100-y)H(y) (0 < y < 20) glassy alloys with distorted

nanostructural icosahedral Zr(5)Nb(5)Ni(3) clusters have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. These alloys show semiconducting, room-temperature superior electric transport, superconducting (onset temperature of 10 K) and electron avalanche behaviors, and electric current-induced voltage (Coulomb) oscillation,

as hydrogen content increases. These results suggest that the localization effect of hydrogen at the outside and inside space of the clusters plays important roles EPZ-6438 concentration in various electron transport phenomena.”
“Background: Inducement of foreign-body granulation tissue is a relatively novel therapeutic modality in bone repair. A two-stage bone reconstruction method, known as the Masquelet technique, combines inducement of a granulation tissue membrane and subsequent bone autografting as a biphasic technique allowing reconstruction of large bone defects. In light of their already well-characterized osteogenesis-improving capabilities in animals, we performed this translational study to investigate these membranes in patients.

Methods: Fourteen patients with complicated fractures and bone defects were randomly selected for this study. Biopsy samples of foreign-body-induced membranes were collected at EVP4593 different time points during scheduled surgical procedures. The membranes were co-cultured with mesenchymal stromal cells, and differentiation into the osteoblastic lineage was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, aminoterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen

(PINP) production, and Ca2+ concentration. Histological characteristics were evaluated with image analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and type-I collagen (Col-1) expression.

Results: The induced membranes were characterized histologically by maturating vascularized fibrous tissue. The vascularization was greatest in one-month-old samples and decreased to <60% in three-month-old samples. One-month-old membrane samples had the highest expression of VEGF, IL-6, and Col-1, whereas two-month-old membranes expressed <40% of the levels of the one-month-old membranes. Specific alkaline phosphatase activity, PINP production, and Ca2+ concentration were increased in co-cultures when a membrane sample was present.

Despite recent data suggesting that ghrelin and the growth hormon

Despite recent data suggesting that ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, as well as the insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins and insulin have potential to be mediators of nutrient exposure and linear growth, it remains to be determined how these systems interrelate and determine growth. This is an area of ongoing investigation.”
“Background: GSK1838705A mouse Over the last decade there have been a number of guidelines published, aimed at improving the quality

of reporting in published studies and reviews. In systematic reviews this may be measured by their compliance with the PRISMA statement. This review aims to evaluate the quality of reporting in published meta-analyses of diagnostic tests, using the PRISMA statement and establish whether there has been a measurable improvement over time.


S3I-201 cell line Eight databases were searched for reviews published prior to 31st December 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated a diagnostic test, measured performance, searched two or more databases, stated the search terms and inclusion criteria, and used a statistical method to summarise a test’s performance. Data were extracted on the review characteristics and items of the PRISMA statement. To measure the change in the quality of reporting over time, PRISMA items for two periods of equal duration were compared.

Results: Compliance with the PRISMA statement was generally S3I-201 JAK/STAT inhibitor poor: none of the reviews completely

adhered to all 27 checklist items. Of the 236 meta-analyses included following selection: only 2(1%) reported the study protocol; 59(25%) reported the searches used; 76(32%) reported the results of a risk of bias assessment; and 82 (35%) reported the abstract as a structured summary. Only 11 studies were published before 2000. Thus, the impact of QUOROM on the quality of reporting was not evaluated. However, the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008 (covering 93% of studies) were compared using relative risks (RR). There was an increase in the proportion of reviews reporting on five PRISMA items: eligibility criteria (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 – 1.27); risk of bias across studies (methods) (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 – 2.44); study selection results (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.05 – 2.09); results of individual studies (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.72); risk of bias across studies (results) (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20 – 2.25).

Conclusion: Although there has been an improvement in the quality of meta-analyses in diagnostic research, there are still many deficiencies in the reporting which future reviewers need to address if readers are to trust the validity of the reported findings.

However, an initial conservative approach could lead to surgery a

However, an initial conservative approach could lead to surgery after delivery for a persistent pneumothorax in as much as 40% of patients. A persistent pneumothorax after delivery that might require surgery delays discharge home and compromises the normal interaction between selleck chemical the mother and new-born child, which might be distressing. For informed consent, the implications of the risk of persistent pneumothorax requiring surgery after delivery where a conservative approach is used initially should be discussed with the patient and family to aid decision making.”
“Objectives: To review recent

advances in the understanding Of Molecular mechanisms of drug disposition and cellular mechanisms of action and targets of colchicine, and disease applications and guidelines For oral colchicine use.

Methods: Summarized and interpreted here is the pertinent English and non-English language literature on MEDLINE (R) since the last update of colchicine In this journal In 1998 and published LIP to July 2008 regarding colchicine pharmacology, toxicology, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications in gout and other medical


Results: Assessment, after review of 1512 publications, is that oral colchicine therapy is being refined by attention to novel targets Such as NALP3 and pyrin. The drug has a narrow therapeutictoxicity window, and potentially PFTα research buy serious drug-drug interactions (eg, with clarithromycin and cyclosporine) are better recognized and therefore preventable. Reviewed here are recent advances in colchicine pharmacogenomics, and recognition of drug-drug interactions and predictors of potential PF-04929113 mw toxicities, including alterations in the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter ABCB1, cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme, and hepatobiliary and renal function. Current understanding of optimization of colchicine dosing is reviewed, as are recent findings oil colchicine therapy of nonrheumatic cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal diseases (eg,

lowering of C-reactive protein, and treatment of acute and recurrent pericarditis). Finally, the article reviews the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated cessation of marketing of injectable colchicine.

Conclusions: Oral colchicine has unique anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects with broad ramifications for rheumatic and nonrheumatic disease applications. Significant advances Ill the last decade have increased understanding of predictors of both colchicine efficacy and toxicity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 38:411-419″
“Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are commonly used for degrading dyes in effluents. Valuable information regarding AOP-mediated formation of intermediates and degradation products can be obtained by using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry as an analytical technique.

“The first-line treatment for intra-abdominal

“The first-line treatment for intra-abdominal Selonsertib abscess is source control. Sometimes, however, source control is too invasive for relatively small abscesses and is not feasible due to the risk of injury to some organs. Based on reports that fosfomycin (FOM) can break up biofilms to enhance the permeability of other antibiotics, we investigated the FOM time-lag combination therapy (FOM-TLCT). We enrolled 114 patients who had intra-abdominal abscess after gastrointestinal surgery and examined the efficacy of FOM-TLCT using the same therapeutic

antibiotic (TA) as that which had been used previously, but had proven ineffective, at the same dose schedule. The efficacy endpoint determination was carried out as follows: among the systemic inflammatory response syndrome

(SIRS)-positive cases, even after administration of TA, excellent outcome was defined as SIRS negative within 7 days of FOM-TLCT with TA without the need for other treatment, including other antibiotics or drainage. Of the 114 patients enrolled, 104 cases (SIRS positive 73; SIRS negative 31) were assessed. Ten patients were excluded; four had received TA at higher doses, three had received different TAs, and three were considered to have bacteria resistant to TAs. Among these patients, 86.3% (63/73) of the SIRS-positive cases were classified as excellent, and 90.3% (28/31) of the SIRS-negative cases were classified as effective. In total, the efficacy rate was 87.5% (91/104). The total no-response rates were 12.5% (13/104). FOM-TLCT seems to be effective for treating refractory intra-abdominal abscess.”
“Background: Recent studies questioned “”classical”" concepts GSK3235025 chemical structure in trauma care,

including whether disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs in trauma. The knowledge on trauma DIC is limited to few studies built on diagnosing DIC with laboratory-based scores. This study explores whether DIC diagnosed by the well-established AC220 mw ISTH (International Society for Thrombosis and Hemostasis) score is corroborated by anatomopathologic findings.

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study of severely injured (ISS >= 16) patients. DIC was diagnosed by the ISTH score throughout the first 24 hours after trauma. All organs surgically removed within 24 hours of trauma were reviewed by two independent pathologists. All autopsy reports were reviewed.

Results: Of 423 patients enrolled, similar to 11% had “”overt DIC”" and 85% had “”suggestive of non-overt DIC”" scores throughout the 24 hours after trauma. “”Overt DIC”" patients had higher mortality and worse bleeding, receiving more blood and plasma transfusions. One hundred and sixteen patients underwent surgery within 24 hours of trauma, and all 40 excised organs were reviewed by two pathologists. Twenty-seven autopsies reports were reviewed. No anatomopathologic evidence of DIC was identified in the first 24 hours, even after additional histochemical staining.

“A featured microchip owning three big reservoirs and long

“A featured microchip owning three big reservoirs and long turned geometry channel was designed to improve the detection limit of DNA fragments by using floating electrokinetic supercharging (FEKS) method. The novel design matches the FEKS preconcentration needs of a large sample volume introduction with electrokinetic injection (EKI), as well as long duration of isotachophoresis (ITP) process to enrich low concentration sample. In the curved channel [similar to 45.6 mm long between port 1 (P1) and the intersection point of two selleck chemical channels], EKI and ITP were performed while the side port

3 (P3) was electrically floated. The turn-induced band broadening with or without ITP process was investigated by a computer simulation (using CFD-ACE+ software) when the analytes traveling through the U-shaped geometry. It was found that the channel curvature determined the extent

of band broadening, however, which could be effectively eliminated by the way of ITP. After the ITP-stacked zones passed the intersection point from P1, they were rapidly destacked for separation and detection from ITP to zone electrophoresis by using leading ions from P3. The FEKS carried on the novel chip successfully contributed to higher sensitivities of DNA fragments in comparison with our previous results realized on either a single channel or a cross microchip. The analysis of low concentration 50 bp DNA step ladders (0.23 mu g/ml after 1500-fold diluted) was achieved with normal UV detection at 260 nm. The obtained limit of detections (LODs) were on average 100 times better than using conventional pinched injection, down to

several ng/ml for individual DNA fragment.”
“Background and objective: JQ1 Appropriate triage of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may improve morbidity, mortality and use of hospital resources. Worse outcomes from delayed intensive care unit (ICU) admission have long been suspected but have not been verified.

Methods: In a retrospective study of consecutive patients with CAP admitted from 19962006 to the ICUs of a tertiary care hospital, we measured serial severity scores, intensive therapies received, ICU-free days, and 30-day mortality. Primary outcome was mortality. We developed a regression model of mortality with ward triage (and subsequent ICU transfer within 72 h) as the predictor, controlled by propensity for ward triage and radiographic progression.

Results: Of 1059 hospital-admitted patients, 269 (25%) were admitted to the ICU during hospitalization. Of those, 167 were directly admitted to the ICU without current requirement for life support, while 61 (23%) were initially admitted to the hospital ward, 50 of those undergoing ICU transfer within 72 h. Ward triage was associated with increased mortality (OR 2.6, P = 0.056) after propensity adjustment. The effect was less (OR 2.2, P = 0.12) after controlling for radiographic progression. The effect probably increased (OR 4.1, P = 0.

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, the levels of these neurostero

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, the levels of these neurosteroids are known to be altered compared to age-matched non-demented controls. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PREGS and DHEA on the hippocampal neurogenesis in 8-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic

(APP/PS1) mice that show amyloid plaques and impaired spatial cognitive performance. In the DG of APP/PS1 mice the proliferation of progenitor cells was increased, while the neurite growth and survival of newborn neuronal cells were markedly Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor impaired. Treatment with PREGS or DHEA rescued perfectly the hypoplastic neurite of newborn neurons in APP/PS1 mice, while neither of them affected the over-proliferation of progenitor cells. Notably, the administration of PREGS, but not DHEA, to APP/PS1 mice could protect the survival and maturation of newborn neuronal cells, which was accompanied by the improvement of spatial cognitive performance. The

results indicate that treatment of AD like brains GW786034 manufacturer of APP/PS1 mice with PREGS might protect the hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to the improved spatial cognitive performance.”
“The perpendicular exchange bias effect in multilayer systems Cr2O3(0001)/[Co/Pt](n), n >= 1, is strongly correlated with the temperature dependence of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in Cr2O3 in the vicinity of its Neel temperature. A crossover between surface and 3D bulk critical

behavior is found for the interface moments of Cr2O3. In addition, for the first time, a specific exchange bias-related contribution to the ferromagnetic coercive field could be separated. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3621460]“
“On December 2006, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a residential-care facility for the elderly in northern Italy. Thirty-five of 61 individuals interviewed (attack rate, 57.4%) fell ill. In 94.3% of cases, the onset of illness was within 48 h of a Christmas party selleck chemical at the facility. Norovirus (NoV) was detected by RT-PCR in 24 of 31 individuals examined, including three asymptomatic food-handlers, in whom there was evidence of long-lasting excretion of viral particles. The identification of a sequence referring to the ’2006a GII. 4 NoV variant’ in all examined strains supported the hypothesis of a common point source. This retrospective cohort study is the first report on an outbreak of NoV gastroenteritis in an Italian residential-care facility for the elderly.”
“Dopaminergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammatory attack.

41, 95% CI 0 31-0 56; 3 trials) Symptomatic UTI and pyelonephrit

41, 95% CI 0.31-0.56; 3 trials). Symptomatic UTI and pyelonephritis were not reported. No significant reduction was found in all-cause mortality and adverse events rates; conflicting results were reported for the development of resistant bacteria. Very few trials assessed the efficacy of prophylaxis for UTI following renal

transplantation. Prophylaxis reduced bacteriuria and sepsis with bacteremia; effects on graft survival could not be demonstrated.”
“Purpose: To investigate the phytochemistry and cytotoxic activity of the leaf, branch and fruit extracts of Vatica diospyroides Symington type LS, an endangered medicinal plant in the peninsula of Thailand.

Methods: Extracts of the mature leaves, branches and fruit (both cotyledon and pericarp) of five-year Linsitinib supplier old tree were obtained using various organic solvents. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening were Selleck Dinaciclib employed to identify the chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity was characterized by 50 % inhibition (IC50) of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthaizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Results: The extracts of the plant

parts differed in chemical composition. Terpenoids and anthraquinones were present in all extracts, while cardiac glycosides and tannins were isolated from the branches and leaves, respectively. The acetone and methanol extracts of the fruit cotyledons were highly cytotoxic against MDA-MB-468 cell line (IC50 = 3.1 mu g/ml for both extracts), whereas acetone and dichloromethane Anlotinib mouse extracts of the fruit pericarps were highly active against MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 18.2 and 21.0 mu g/ml, respectively). The other extracts were less active.

Conclusion: This work revealed the potentials of V. diospyroides fruit as a cytotoxic agent against human breast cancer cell lines. However, further studies, including identification and purification of the

active compounds, will need to be pursued.”
“Objective: Temporal bone encephaloceles and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea can lead to life-threatening sequelae such as meningitis and cerebritis. Obesity has been associated with spontaneous CSF leaks. We wished to determine if there were differences in the body mass index (BMI) of patients with spontaneous temporal bone encephaloceles/CSF leaks and nonspontaneous temporal bone encephaloceles/CSF leaks to help determine if obesity may be associated with their development.

Study Design: Single institution retrospective comparison.

Methods: Demographic and clinical information was obtained from 20 patients treated for surgically confirmed temporal bone dehiscence leading to encephalocele and/or CSF otorrhea. Statistical analysis was performed on patients with spontaneous and nonspontaneous encephaloceles/CSF leaks to determine if there were differences in the degree of obesity between these groups.

This review presents recent data concerning the advance of our kn

This review presents recent data concerning the advance of our knowledge related to these problems.”
“The sexual activity Cilengitide datasheet and contraceptive use is evaluated over 21 years amongst Danish adolescents in ninth grade.

A repeated, cross-sectional questionnaire study in the municipality of Viborg, comparing the results of four consecutive surveys between 1986 and 2007.

In 2007, 40% of the pupils had sexual debut at an

average age of 15.3 +/- A 1.5 years. At sexual debut condoms were used in 77% of the adolescents and the contraceptive pill in 15%. At their latest coitus 34% used any contraceptive pill as 27% of pupils changed from use of condom to the pill. Practical experience with condoms was found in 90% of both sexes at sexual debut. Fourteen percent of the adolescents used no contraception at all at debut in 2007, which is similar to 1986, 1993,

and 2000. Eighteen percent of the pupils used no contraception at all at their last intercourse in 2007 and 2000.

Knowledge about and use of condoms is substantial amongst adolescents already at sexual debut. A shift is confirmed from condoms at first coitus to more frequent use of the pill later on. A considerable number of pupils (10-20%) are neither protected against sexually transmitted infections nor pregnancy at first or later intercourse.”
“The morphology, tensile, impact properties, and thermal expansion behavior of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene (ABS)/talc composites with different compositions and mixing sequences were investigated. From the studies of morphology of the PC/ABS/talc composites, it was observed that some talc particles were located in both the PC and the

ABS phases of the blend but most were at the interface between the PC and ABS phases for every mixing sequence. Aspect ratios of the talc particles determined by TEM image analysis reasonably matched values computed from tensile modulus using composite theory. The thermal expansion behavior, or CTE values, was not significantly influenced by the mixing sequence. The impact strength of the PC/ABS/talc composites depended significantly on the mixing sequence; a premix with PC gave the poorest toughness. The molecular weight of the PC in PC/talc composites was found to be significantly decreased. It appears that the impact strength of the PC/ABS/talc composites is seriously compromised by the degradation of the PC caused by talc. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Recurrent genomic imbalances at 16p11.2 are genetic risk factors of variable penetrance for developmental delay and autism. Recently, 16p11.2 (chr16:29.5 Mb-30.1 Mb) deletion has also been detected in individuals with early-onset severe obesity. The penetrance of 16p11.2 deletion as a genetic risk factor for obesity is unknown. We evaluated the growth and body mass characteristics of 28 individuals with 16p11.2 (chr16: 29.5 Mbe30.

Results: Statistically significant correlations between radiograp

Results: Statistically significant correlations between radiographic severity and the overall magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance (r(2)

= 21.4%, P = 0.003) and the magnitude of the knee flexion angle during the gait cycle (r(2) = 11.4%, P = 0.03) were found. Significant correlations between pain and gait speed (r(2) = 28.2%, P < 0.0001), the activation patterns of the lateral gastrocnemius (r(2) = 16.6%, P = 0.009) and the medial hamstring (r(2) = 10.3%, P = 0.04) during gait were found. The combination of the magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance and BMI explained a significant portion of the variability in radiographic severity (R-2 = 27.1%, P < 0.0001). No multivariate model explained pain severity better than gait speed alone.

Conclusions: This study suggests that some knee joint

biomechanical AZD2171 datasheet learn more variables are associated with structural knee OA severity measured from radiographs in clinically diagnosed mild to moderate levels of disease, but that pain severity is only reflected in gait speed and neuromuscular activation patterns. A combination of the knee adduction moment and BMI better explained structural knee OA severity than any individual factor alone. (C) 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The rupture of intracranial aneurysms leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often associated with poor outcome. Preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is possible and recommended. However, the lack of candidate genes precludes identifying patients at risk Selleckchem EPZ5676 by genetic analyses.

We observed intracranial aneurysms in 2 patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and the known disease-causing mutation c.292T > C (p.Tyr98His) in the VHL tumor suppressor gene. This study investigates whether the VHL gene is a possible candidate gene for aneurysm formation. Methods: Patients with intracranial aneurysms admitted to our department between 2006 and 2009 were enrolled. The peripheral leukocyte DNA of 200 patients was investigated for sequence variations in the VHL gene using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral leukocyte DNA of 100 randomly sampled probands was investigated as a control group. The allelic frequencies of sequence variations between both groups were compared using the Fisher exact test. Results: Fourteen of 200 patients with intracranial aneurysms had sequence variations at 6 different loci in the VHL gene. In contrast, no sequence variations were identified in 100 probands in the control group (P = 0.0062). However, none of the single-sequence variations had a statistically significant difference in the allelic frequencies compared to the control group. Conclusions: There is accumulating evidence for a genetic basis of aneurysm development.

68; 95% CI, 1 51-8 94; P < 0 001)

Conclusions: At

68; 95% CI, 1.51-8.94; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: At least two third of SU5402 price all patients presenting with CLI can be offered some type of direct revascularisation. In patients with major cardiac disease and renal insufficiency, a poor outcome in terms of amputation-free survival is to be anticipated. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We reviewed our single-centre experience with emergent operative repair of Stanford Type A aortic dissections, with particular attention to outcomes in the elderly.

Consecutive adult patients undergoing emergent operative repair of acute Type A aortic dissections between February 2004 and December 2011 at a single institution were identified. Patients were stratified into elderly (>= 70 years) and control cohorts (< 70 years). Kaplan-Meier

analysis was used to evaluate survival.

A total of 117 patients undergoing emergent repair of Type A aortic dissection were identified during the study period, including 31 (26.5%) elderly and 86 (73.5%) control patients. The URMC-099 ic50 mean age in the elderly cohort was 78.0 +/- 4.7 years, with 41.9% (13 of 31) being 80 years or older. The elderly and control groups were well matched with regard to preoperative comorbidities (each P > 0.05) and the presence of malperfusion at presentation (elderly: 19.4 vs controls: 27.9%, P = 0.35). The most common site of tear involved the proximal ascending aorta (elderly: 83.9 vs controls: 84.9%), with fewer cases affecting the aortic arch (12.9 vs 14.0%; P = 0.75). Operative data, including cardiopulmonary

bypass and aortic cross-clamp time, concomitant aortic valve procedures and arch replacement were also similar between cohorts. Fewer elderly patients underwent hypothermic circulatory arrest (67.7 vs 90.7%, P = 0.002). Overall survival to discharge was 87.2% (n = 102), with no difference in the elderly (83.9%; n = 26) vs controls (88.4%; n = 76; P = 0.52). The 30-day (elderly: 82.8 AZD2014 clinical trial vs controls: 86.2%), 90-day (elderly: 79.0 vs controls: 84.8%) and 1-year (elderly: 75.4 vs controls: 84.8%) survivals were also comparable.

Excellent operative outcomes can be achieved in elderly patients undergoing emergent repair of Type A aortic dissections. Advanced patient age should therefore not serve as an absolute contraindication to operative repair in this high-risk cohort.”
“A three-stage fermentation strategy was designed for efficient arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina. The process at different stages by changing the components of medium was investigated. In the first stage, mycelia were inoculated in a nutrient-rich medium for rapid propagation. In the second stage, mycelia were collected and then cultivated in glucose solution to achieve high cellular lipid contents. In the third stage, mycelia were cultured in a glucose-absent medium to obtain rapid ARA accumulation.