Postnatal depression has been found to be more common among recent migrants to Australia (Williams and Carmichael 1985; Brown and Lumley 2000), Pacific Island mothers in Auckland, New Zealand (Abbott and Williams 2006), Canadian immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees (Stewart et al. 2008; Dennis et al. 2009), London ethnic minorities (Onozawa et al. 2003), and Latinas or Hispanic U.S. mothers (Beck et al. 2005; Diaz et al. 2007). The significance of these findings is complicated by the wide international Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cross-cultural variation
definitions and understandings of postnatal depression and depressive symptoms. Halbreich and Karkun (2006) undertook a review of 143 studies from 40 countries and found a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical wide range in reported rates. The authors concluded that the variability might
be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socioeconomic environments and biological vulnerability factors. Of significance in our study is the possibility that migrant mothers are socially isolated or segregated within the South West Sydney community. The fifth identified dimension, family size, was a complex combination of variables Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical including Danusertib number of children under five, household size and weak negative loading of suburb duration, and “no regret leaving the suburb.” Taken together, they represent mothers with larger families who have been in
their suburb for some time and do not want to leave. It was not surprising, therefore that this dimension might protect mothers from depressive symptoms as it has been frequently reported that lack of social support is an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical important predictor of maternal depression (Beck 2001). The vector for the variable maternal expectations was intermediate between the infant behavior-related variables and the variables for emotional, practical, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and social support, suggesting some correlation with those vectors. The length of the vector suggested that the variable was important and independent from the identified latent variables. An association between maternal expectation’s and depressive symptoms is consistent with previous studies (Beck 2002). Methodological limitations The size (15,389) of this cross-sectional study of the Astemizole EPDS administered to postnatal women is unique. The cross-sectional design, however, has limitations particularly in relation to drawing causal inferences from the regularities observed. Selection bias may have occurred from refusal and nonresponse in the study population. The self-report nature of the survey is particularly problematic with altered responses depending on mother’s mental state. There was a systematic nature to the missing EPDS data.