Specimen examined: USA, California, on Eucalyptus sp , Mar 2009,

Specimen examined: USA, California, on Eucalyptus sp., Mar. 2009, S. Denman, holotype CBS H-20302, culture ex-type CPC 13819 = CBS 124819, CPC 13820, 13821. Notes: Numerous pycnidia are formed on OA after about 3 wk, which become fertile after 5 wk. Conidia are mostly similar

in shape and size to those formed on PNA, but slightly shorter. see more Based on conidial size, C. californiae (12.5–27.5 × 4.2–5.8 µm) is easily distinguished from C. edgertonii (30–48 × 12–15 µm), which also Acadesine datasheet occurs on Eucalyptus (Edgerton 1908). Although C. californiae may occur on other hosts, we were unable to locate a name for it, and BLAST results for its ITS sequences did not reveal its presence in GenBank. The ITS sequence of this species had an E-value of 0.0 with the ITS sequences of Pezicula spp. and Cryptosporiopsis spp. such as P. carpinea (AF141197;

95 % identical), P. heterochroma (AF141167; 95 % identical), P. sporulosa (AF141172; 94 % identical), C. radicicola (AF141193; 95 % identical), C. melanigena (AF141196; 94 % identical) and others. Cryptosporiopsis caliginosa Cheewangkoon, Summerell & Crous, sp. nov. Fig. 4 Fig. 4 Cryptosporiopsis caliginosa. a, b. Conidiomata on host substrate. c–i. Conidia attached to phialidic conidiogenous cells. j, k. Conidiogenous cells. l. Conidia. Scale bars: a = 100 µm, b = 20 µm, c–l = 10 µm; c applies to c–l MycoBank MB516494. Etymology: Name refers to Eucalyptus caliginosa, Caspase Inhibitor VI price on which the fungus was collected. ADP ribosylation factor Maculae amphigenae, subcirculares ad irregulares, brunneae. Conidiomata in foliis acervularia, subcuticularia ad epidermalia, pallide brunnea, discreta, 2–3 strata texturae angularis composita, ad 200 µm diam, 150–200 µm alta. Conidiophora nulla. Cellulae conidiogenae discretae, phialidicae, cylindricae, hyalinae, rectae vel leniter curvatae, glabrae, (14.5–)16–18(–20) × 4.5–6 µm. Conidia elongate ellipsoidea, plerumque recta, apice late obtuso, basi abrupte angustata in hilum leniter protrudens, aseptata, hyalina, crassitunicata, minute guttulata,

(8.5–)15–17(–19) × (3.5–)4.5–5.5 µm. Leaf spots amphigenous, subcircular to irregular, medium brown. Conidiomata on leaves acervular, subcuticular to epidermal, pale brown, separate, consisting of 2–3 layers of textura angularis, up to 200 µm diam, 150–200 µm high; dehiscence irregular, by rupture of the overlying host tissues. Conidiophores absent. Conidiogenous cells arise from the inner cells of the cavity, discrete, phialidic, cylindrical, hyaline, straight to slightly curved, smooth, (14.5–)16–18(–20) × 4.5–6 µm. Conidia elongate ellipsoidal, mostly straight, broadly obtuse at the apex, tapering abruptly to a slightly protruding basal scar, aseptate, hyaline, thick-walled, minutely guttulate, (8.5–)15–17(–19) × (3.5–)4.5–5.5 µm. Specimen examined: AUSTRALIA, New South Wales, Northern Tablelands, Mt Mackenzie Nature Reserve (290504S; 1515805E) on Eucalyptus caliginosa, 1 Feb. 2007, B.A.

J Bacteriol 2002, 184:1430–1437 CrossRefPubMed 7 Nakano M, Kawan

J Bacteriol 2002, 184:1430–1437.CrossRefPubMed 7. Nakano M, Kawano Y, Kawagishi M, Hasegawa T, Iinuma Y, Ohta M: Two-dimensional analysis of exoproteins of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

(MRSA) for possible epidemiological application. Micro Immunol 2002, 46:11–22. 8. Blevins JS, Gillaspy AF, Rechtin TM, Hurlburt BK, Smeltzer MS: The staphylococcal accessory regulator ( sar ) represses transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin gene ( cna ) in an agr -independent manner. Mol Microbiol 1999, 33:317–326.CrossRefPubMed 9. Chan PF, Foster J: Role of SarA in virulence determinant production and environmental signal transduction in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 1998, 180:6232–6241.PubMed 10. Bayer MG, Heinrichs JH, Cheung AL: The LY2835219 order molecular architecture of the sar locus in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 1996, 178:4563–4570.PubMed 11. Becker K, Friedrich AW, Lubritz G, Weilert M, Peters G, Christo von Eiff : Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and Evofosfamide clinical trial exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2003, 41:1434–1439.CrossRefPubMed

12. Imura S: Changes in drug susceptibility and toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood cultures at a university hospital. J Infect Ruxolitinib cell line Chemother 2004, 10:8–10.CrossRef 13. Hamilton SM, Bryant AE, Carrol KC, Lockary V, Ma Y, Mcindoo E, Miller LG, Perdreau-Remington F, Pullman J, Risi GF, Salmi DB, Stevens DL: In vitro production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin among strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing diverse infections. Clin Infect Dis 2007, 45:1550–1558.CrossRefPubMed 14. Strommenger B, Cuny C, Werner G, Witte W: Obvious lack of association between dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Europe and SB-3CT agr specificitygroups. Eur J Clin Microbio

Infect Di 2003, 23:15–19. 15. McCalla C, Smyth DS, Robinson DA, Steenbergen J, Luperchio AS, Moise PA, Fowler VG, Sakoulas G: Microbiological and Genotypic Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008, 52:3441–3443.CrossRefPubMed 16. Pragman AA, Schlievert PM: Virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus: the need for in vivo analysis of virulence factor regulation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2004, 42:147–154.CrossRefPubMed 17. Louie L, Matsumura SO, Choi E, Louie M, Simor AE: Evaluation of three rapid methods for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2000, 38:2170–2173.PubMed 18. Gilot P, Lina G, Cochard T, Poutrel B: Analysis of the genetic variability of genes encoding the RNA III-activating components ag r and TRAP in a population of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cows with mastitis. J Clin Microbiol 2002, 40:4060–4067.CrossRefPubMed 19.

The studies on the applications of konjac glucomannan have been e

The studies on the applications of konjac glucomannan have been extended greatly from food and food additives to various fields [28, 29]. Herein, we explore the use of KGM in the preparation of nanosized materials and thus further promote its application in nanotechnology. BIIB057 In the present study, konjac glucomannan was introduced for the facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles, both as reducing agent and stabilizer (Figure  1). The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light

scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles was investigated by the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP). It should be noted that Konjac glucomannan, as an abundant natural polysaccharide, could be easily gained from Konjac plant tubers at low cost. Meanwhile, the gold nanoparticles reduced in the aqueous KGM solution exhibit great stability and dispersibility

due to specific properties of KGM. Figure 1 Schematic plot illustrating the formation and stabilization of AuNPs using konjac glucomannan. Methods Materials Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 · 4H2O, 99.9%) was purchased from Aladdin (Shanghai, China). Purified konjac glucomannan was obtained from Shengtemeng Konjac Powder Co. (Sichuan, China). All solutions were prepared in double-distilled water, and all glassware

used was rinsed with aqua A-1155463 price regia solution (HCl/HNO3, 3:1) and then washed with double-distilled water before use. All other common reagents and solvents used in this study were of analytical grade. Synthesis of AuNPs in aqueous solution with KGM KGM powders (0.25 g) were Sclareol dispersed in double-distilled water (100 mL) by stirring for 1 h at room temperature, and then the solution was held at 80°C for 1 h. The preparation of gold nanoparticles is quite straightforward. In a typical preparation, sodium hydroxide solution (0.4 mL, 1 M) was added to KGM solution (20 mL, 0.25 wt%) under stirring, and then aqueous HAuCl4 (2 mL, 10 mM) solution was introduced. The mixture was incubated at 50°C for 3 h. The obtained gold nanoparticles were collected by centrifugation and washed thoroughly with DI water. Characterization All AP26113 molecular weight UV-visible (UV-vis) spectra were recorded on a Pgeneral TU-1810 spectrophotometer (Purkinje Inc., Beijing, China) with 1-cm quartz cells. At different time intervals, aliquots of the solution were taken out and the samples were cooled to ambient temperature and then tested immediately. The morphology of the prepared gold nanoparticles in KGM solutions was examined with a JEOL JEM-2100 F transmission electron microscope (TEM, JEOL Inc., Tokyo, Japan) operated at an acceleration voltage of 200 kV.

Reginster J, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML,

Reginster J, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML, Lund B, Ethgen D, Pack S, Roumagnac I, Eastell R (2000) Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) study group. Osteoporos Int 11:83–91PubMedCrossRef 62. Watts NB, Josse RG, Hamdy RC, Hughes RA, Manhart MD, Barton buy SB203580 I, Calligeros D, Felsenberg D (2003) Risedronate

prevents new vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women at high risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:542–549PubMedCrossRef 63. Harrington JT, Ste-Marie LG, Brandi ML, Civitelli R, Fardellone P, Grauer A, Barton I, Boonen S (2004) Risedronate rapidly reduces the risk for nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 74:129–135PubMedCrossRef 64. Sorensen OH, Crawford GM, Mulder H, Hosking DJ, Gennari C, Mellstrom D, Pack S, Wenderoth D, Cooper C, Reginster JY (2003) Long-term efficacy of risedronate: a 5-year placebo-controlled clinical experience. Bone 32:120–126PubMedCrossRef 65. Boonen S, McClung MR, Eastell R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Barton IP, Delmas P (2004) Safety and efficacy of risedronate in reducing fracture risk in osteoporotic women aged 80 and older: implications for the use of antiresorptive

agents in the old and oldest old. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1832–1839PubMedCrossRef 66. McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, Zippel H, Bensen WG, Roux C, Adami S, Fogelman I, Diamond T, Eastell R, Meunier PJ, Reginster JY (2001) Effect of risedronate on the

risk of learn more hip fracture Thiamine-diphosphate kinase in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. N Engl J Med 344:333–340PubMedCrossRef 67. Cranney A, Tugwell P, Adachi J, Weaver B, Zytaruk N, Papaioannou A, Robinson V, Shea B, Wells G, Guyatt G (2002) www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBW2992.html Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. III. Meta-analysis of risedronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23:517–523PubMedCrossRef 68. Brown JP, Kendler DL, McClung MR, Emkey RD, Adachi JD, Bolognese MA, Li Z, Balske A, Lindsay R (2002) The efficacy and tolerability of risedronate once a week for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 71:103–111PubMedCrossRef 69. Chesnut IC, Skag A, Christiansen C, Recker R, Stakkestad JA, Hoiseth A, Felsenberg D, Huss H, Gilbride J, Schimmer RC, Delmas PD (2004) Effects of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 19:1241–1249CrossRef 70. Reginster JY, Adami S, Lakatos P, Greenwald M, Stepan JJ, Silverman SL, Christiansen C, Rowell L, Mairon N, Bonvoisin B, Drezner MK, Emkey R, Felsenberg D, Cooper C, Delmas PD, Miller PD (2006) Efficacy and tolerability of once-monthly oral ibandronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2 year results from the MOBILE study. Ann Rheum Dis 65:654–661PubMedCrossRef 71.

Shown in the figure is a mouse-specific phosphorylation event pre

Shown in the figure is a mouse-specific phosphorylation event predicted by KinasePhos at

position 984. The user can also choose to view the nucleotide sequence alignments in 5′/3′ UTR or coding sequence by clicking on the hyperlinks in the left panel. Figure 4 An example of HIV-human protein interaction graph. The white, blue, and green circles represent the target, HIV-1, and other human proteins, respectively. TSA HDAC solubility dmso information of any of the protein can be obtained on the right panel by clicking on that protein circle. The triangles each represent a PPI key phrase based on one research article. By clicking on one of the triangles, the users can obtain more detailed information on the right panel, including Selleck GS-4997 a short description of the interaction, a PubMed hyperlink to the original publication, and hyperlinks to the

annotations of the interacting proteins. The dashed lines indicate HPRD- and BIND-based interactions between human A-1210477 proteins. The circled dashed lines indicate self-interactions. The semi-circles around each protein node indicate the presence of orthologous proteins in the non-human organisms. The entire graph can be zoomed in and out by holding and moving the right mouse click. The graph can also be moved along by holding and moving the left mouse click. The interface also provides an alignment viewer using JalView [32] (The “”Multiple Sequence Alignments”" section; Figure 3B). JalView helps to show the alignments of orthologous protein, CDS, and UTR sequences, InterPro domains, potential protein interaction hot sites, and species-specific substitutions, indels, and PTMs. All of these features are color-shaded, and can be shown or hidden by changing the check list in the accompanying “”Feature Settings”" box (Figure 3B). The user can view detailed information of the predicted protein domains

and species-specific genetic changes by pointing the cursor to the color-shaded boxes. Note that the features may overlap with each other. Therefore, some features may not be seen unless the overlapping features are hidden. The users are advised to take advantage of the Feature Settings box to obtain a clear view of the sequence alignment. A detailed description of JalView can be found at the JalView website next http://​www.​jalview.​org. CAPIH also provides a JAVA-based adjustable protein interaction viewer (The “”Protein Interactions”" section; Figure 4). The interaction view gives the user an idea of how HIV-1 proteins interact with the proteins of interest. To extend the scope of interactions, we also include human protein interactions downloaded from the BIND and HPRD databases [30, 31], in addition to HIV-1-human protein interactions. The BIND and HPRD interactions are shown in dashed lines, whereas the HIV-1-human protein interactions in solid lines with colored triangles representing different interaction types.

It has been hypothesized that cysteamine, which is a chemical pre

It has been hypothesized that cysteamine, which is a chemical precursor of the pantetheine moiety of coenzyme A, was formed in the primitive oceans from ethylene sulfide and ammonia or from ethylene imine and hydrogen sulfide (Keefe et al. 1995). However, our results suggest that cysteamine could have also formed readily from electric discharges. The recently discovered enzymatic conversion of cysteate into sulfopyruvate in the biosynthesis of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, HSCH2CH2SO3H) in Methanosarcina acetivorans (Graham et al. 2009) supports the idea that products of cysteine degradation and

other sulfur-bearing organic compounds SAHA HDAC cost of prebiotic origin may have been involved in early biological processes. The selection of the two thio-amino acids present in proteins is likely the outcome of a combination of their availability coupled with their functional utility (Cleaves 2010; Weber and Miller 1981). It has been suggested that cysteine could be an evolutionary replacement of an ancestral sulfhydryl-containing coenzyme (White 1982). However, it is possible that cysteine was first Selleck BI 10773 incorporated into proteins because of its ability to form RNA-recognizing zinc-fingers, to bind to Fe/S clusters and to dimerize and covalently link to form disulfide bonds that play a key role in maintaining functional three-dimensionally folded

protein structures. In addition to its role as a building block in proteins, methionine is the immediate selleckchem precursor

of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the major methyl-group donor in transmethylation reactions in contemporary biochemistry. It has been proposed that methyl group transfer from SAM to amines may be vestigial of prebiotic Oxymatrine methylation reactions involving formaldehyde (Waddell et al. 2000). However, the possibility that ribonucleotide-like coenzymes are remnants of an ancestral stage in which ribozymes played a more conspicuous role in metabolism (Orgel and Sulston 1971; White 1976) suggests that methionine may have been first incorporated into biological systems because of its involvement in methyltransferase activities that evolved in a primordial RNA-dependent world. In other words, it is possible that methionine was initially incorporated into the RNA world as a cofactor. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the librarians of the Mandeville Special Collections in the Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego campus. Support from a UC Mexus-CONACYT Fellowship to A.L. and the NASA Astrobiology Institute and Goddard Center for Astrobiology for J.P.D. and D.P.G. are gratefully acknowledged. H.J.C. and M.P.C. were supported by the NASA Post-Doctoral Program (NPP). We also thank Dr. Jamie Elsila for GC-MS analyses of these extracts and Professor Facundo Fernandez for DART-ToF analyses.

J Am Chem Soc 2004, 126:10076–10084

J Am Chem Soc 2004, 126:10076–10084.CrossRef 19. Jiang J, Oberdörster G, Biswas P: Characterization

of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies. J Nanopart Res 2009, 11:77–89.CrossRef 20. Warheit DB: How meaningful are the results of nanotoxicity studies in the absence of adequate material characterization? Toxicol Sci 2008, 101:183–185.CrossRef 21. Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N: MK-1775 ic50 Toxic potential of materials at the nano level. Science 2006, 311:622–627.CrossRef 22. Studer AM, Limbach LK, Duc LV, Krumeich F, Athanassiou EK, Gerber LC, Moch H, Stark WJ: Nanoparticle cytotoxicity depends on intracellular solubility: comparison of stabilized copper metal and degradable copper oxide nanoparticles. Toxicol Lett 2010, 197:169–174.CrossRef 23. Auffan M, Rose J, Wiesner MR, Bottero JY: Chemical stability of metallic nanoparticles: a parameter controlling their potential cellular toxicity in vitro . Environ Pollut 2009, 157:1127–1133.CrossRef 24. Pan Y, Neuss S, Leifert A, SN-38 molecular weight Fischler M, Wen F, Simon U, Schmid G, Brandau W, Jahnen-Dechent W: Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles. Small 2007, 3:1941–1949.CrossRef 25. Li Y, Sun L, Jin M, Du

Z, Liu X, Guo C, Li Y, Huang P, Sun Z: Size-dependent cytotoxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Toxicol In Vitro 2011, 25:1343–1352.CrossRef 26. Liu Y, Meyer-Zaika W, Franzka F, Schmid G, Tsoli M, Kuhn H: Gold-cluster degradation by the transition of B-DNA into A-DNA and the formation of nanowires. Angew Chem Int Ed 2003, 42:2853–2857.CrossRef 27. Tsoli M, Kuhn H, Brandau W, Esche H, Schmid G: Cellular uptake and toxicity of Au55 clusters. Small 2005, 1:841–844.CrossRef 28. Pan Y, Leifert A, Ruau D, Neuss S, find more Bornemann J, Schmid G, Brandau W, Simon U, Jahnen-Dechent W: Gold nanoparticles of diameter 1.4 nm trigger necrosis by oxidative stress and mitochondrial Pregnenolone damage. Small 2009, 5:2067–2076.CrossRef 29. Li T, Albee B, Alemayehu M, Diaz R, Ingham L, Kamal S, Rodriguez M, Bishnoi SW: Comparative toxicity study

of Ag, Au, and Ag–Au bimetallic nanoparticles on Daphnia magna . Anal Bioanal Chem 2010, 398:689–700.CrossRef 30. Farkas J, Christian P, Urrea JAG, Roos N, Hassellöv M, Tollefsen KE, Thomas KV: Effects of silver and gold nanoparticles on rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) hepatocytes. Aquat Toxicol 2010, 96:44–52.CrossRef 31. Patra HK, Banerjee S, Chaudhuri U, Lahiri P, Dasgupta AK: Cell selective response to gold nanoparticles. Nanomed Nanotechnol 2007, 3:111–119.CrossRef 32. Ponti J, Colognato R, Franchini F, Gioria S, Simonelli F, Abbas K, Uboldi C, Kirkpatrick CJ, Holzwarth U, Rossi F: A quantitative in vitro approach to study the intracellular fate of gold nanoparticles: from synthesis to cytotoxicity. Nanotoxicology 2009, 3:296–306.CrossRef 33.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:761–9 [I] PubMedCrossRef 138 Gonzales

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:761–9 [I].PubMedCrossRef 138. Gonzales DA, Norsworthy KJ, Kern SJ, Banks S, Sieving PC, Star RA, et al. A meta-analysis of N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: unsupervised clustering to resolve heterogeneity. BMC Med. 2007;5:32 [I].PubMedCrossRef 139. Anderson SM, Park ZH, Patel RV. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast media-induced nephropathy. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45:101–7 [I].PubMedCrossRef 140. Trivedi H. Is

Crenigacestat in vitro there enough evidence to support use of N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced nephropathy? Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:213 (author reply 215–216 [VI]). 141. Hoffmann U, Fischereder M, Krüger B, Drobnik W, Krämer BK. The value of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of radiocontrast agent-induced nephropathy seems questionable. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:407–10 [VI].PubMedCrossRef 142. Poletti PA, Saudan P,

Platon A, Mermillod B, Sautter AM, check details Vermeulen B, et al. I.v. N-acetylcysteine and emergency CT: use of serum creatinine and cystatin C as markers of radiocontrast nephrotoxicity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:687–92 [VI].PubMedCrossRef 143. Goldfarb S, McCullough PA, McDermott J, Gay SB. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury: specialty-specific protocols for interventional radiology, diagnostic computed selleck chemical tomography radiology, and interventional cardiology. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84:170–9 [VI].PubMedCrossRef 144. Lanese DM, Yuan BH, Falk SA, Conger GABA Receptor JD. Effects of atriopeptin III on isolated rat afferent and efferent arterioles. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:F1102–9 [VI].PubMed 145. Meyer-Lehnert H, Bayer T, Predel HG, Glanzer K, Kramer HJ. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on systemic and renal hemodynamics and renal excretory function in patients with chronic renal failure. Klin Wochenschr. 1991;69:895–903 [VI].PubMedCrossRef 146. Valsson F, Ricksten SE, Hedner T, Lundin S. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on acute renal impairment in patients

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To find the amplified optical signal (AOS), we injected light swe

To find the amplified optical signal (AOS), we injected light sweeping the TL wavelength (λ

inj) from 1,266 to 1,310 nm with a 7-mA current bias. Figure 4 shows results for injection at λ inj =1,279 nm only. We could not investigate the second resonance peak λ R2 because of the wavelength limit of the TL. In Figure 4a,b,c,d, the results for ASE - ASE0, AOS + ASE, AOS + ASE - ASE0, and finally AOS - ASE0spectra are shown, respectively. Figure 4 Results of various power spectra for λ inj = 1,279 nm. (a) ASE - ASE0level, (b) AOS + ASE, (c) AOS + ASE - ASE0, and (d) AOS - ASE0 power spectra. As the gain is small, the selleck kinase inhibitor amplified signal cannot be selleck chemicals llc easily discerned in Figure 4d. Hence, the gain was calculated using the simple relation (1) for each wavelength after obtaining AOS and ASE data. Results are shown as a function of the injected wavelength in Figure 5 for a specific laser power (P inj) of 2.25 nW. A maximum

gain of 3 dB with a very broad peak is observed at the maximum ASE wavelength of 1,288.5 nm. In the study, measured signal levels are very near to limits of the OSA; therefore, larger bandwidth wavelength values are used, which can be the reason of the broadness of the gain peak. Figure 5 Gain versus injected laser wavelength with P inj = 2.25 nW. Having verified that the gain peak corresponds to the ASE peak wavelength, we investigated the P inj dependence by varying it from 1.5 nW to a few milliwatts KU55933 for the single wavelength of 1,288.5 nm. Results are presented for both samples with and without confinement aperture in Figure 6 for power values below 10 nW. For injected laser powers

over 5 nW, the gain falls rapidly. At the lowest injected power, the sample Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase with confinement aperture exhibits 10 dB of gain, which is observed near the maximum ASE wavelength. For the investigated injected power range, the sample with the confinement aperture showed a higher gain because of the better carrier and light confinement in the VCSOA. Figure 6 Power-dependent gain for the samples with and without confinement aperture. Conclusions In this paper, we report the observation of gain in an electrically driven dilute nitride VCSOA device operated at 1.3-μm in reflection mode. Two different types of samples with and without confinement aperture are investigated. The ASE power peak is found to be at 1,288.5 nm with additional modes, which are caused by the length of the cavity. Optical gain is found to occur at low optical injection values. Above 5 nW of optical injection, the gain is found to fall rapidly. The maximum observed optical gain is observed at 1,288.5 nm at room temperature. The maximum observed optical gain at 7-mA current at room temperature is around 10 and 6 dB for samples with and without confinement aperture, respectively. It is important to mention that despite the small gain, the device is very promising because it requires very small currents compared with in-plane SOAs.

We did not find any peak that corresponds to the diffraction from

We did not find any peak that corresponds to the diffraction from Cu2O (111) or Cu (111) which would be located at 36.4° and 43.3°, respectively [18]. The XRD results are consistent with the TEM results that a pure CuO has been grown successfully on top of ZnO NWs. Figure 3 XRD patterns of ZnO (black line) and ZnO/CuO (red line). The inset shows the XRD patterns of ZnO (black line) and ZnO/CuO (red line) between 2θ = 35.5° and 40.5°. Transmission and spectral photoresponse of the ZnO-CuO are shown in Figure  4. With the light coming from the ‘back’ of the sample as shown in the Ulixertinib in vitro inset of Figure  1, the ITO/glass substrate acts

as a ‘low-pass filter’ and will allow the light with a wavelength above 350 nm to pass without absorption [21]. As can be seen in the figure, the transmission spectrum of ZnO/CuO CH (blue line) shows two abrupt drops, one at about 420 nm and the other at about 800 nm, which correspond to the band-edge absorption of ZnO and CuO, respectively. Also shown in the figure are the photoresponse spectra of ZnO/CuO CH under buy CH5183284 different reverse biases. We can identify two features located at 424 and 800 nm in the spectra. The huge response around 424 nm is below the typical band gap of ZnO. It could be due to the narrowing of the band gap of ZnO as a result of tensile stress in the coaxial structure

[22], which is consistent with our XRD and TEM results. Another response around 800 nm can be attributed to the photoresponse of CuO [23]. It is much smaller than that of the main peak at 424 nm because the CuO film is thin. We note that the optical responsivity of the devices is bias sensitive. The responsivity of the sample at 424 nm increases from 0.4 to 3.5 A W−1 when the reverse bias increases from 1 to 3 V. Figure 4 Transmission spectrum of ZnO/CuO

CH and its photoresponse spectrum at different reverse biases. The inset shows the photoresponse of ZnO NWs for comparison. The I-V curves of PR-inserted ZnO NWs/CuO with and without light illumination are shown in Figure  5. The inset shows that the I-V curves for the Ag-CuO film (black line) and ITO-ZnO NWs (blue line) are both linear, indicating the contacts are ohmic [24–26]. Hence, Morin Hydrate the characteristic rectifying behavior is due to the ZnO/CuO CH p-n junction [26]. As can be seen in the figure, the leakage current is 12.6 μA at a reverse bias of −3 V, and it increases to 770 μA under light illumination, which is an increase of about 60-fold. As there is a large on/off ratio and the photoresponse is centered at around 424 nm, the experimental results PSI-7977 manufacturer suggest that the PR-inserted ZnO/CuO CH can be used as a good narrow-band blue light detector [27]. Figure 5 I – V characteristic curves of the ZnO/CuO CH with PR. In the dark (black line) and under light (424 nm) illumination (red line).