but I(10) was not The determination of a model-independent oil m

but I(10) was not. The determination of a model-independent oil migration rate (I(10)/t(n)) using this method was found to be highly reproducible and accurate. Due to the observed non-linearity of the oil migration process and the effects of matrix structure on the determination of pixel intensity (and thus mass of dye migrated), the quantification of oil migration using the simplified version of Fick’s second law is not recommended. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Backgeound: Spinal growth modulation has been proposed as a non-fusion strategy for treatment of idiopathic scoliosis, although the effect of this treatment modality on intervertebral disc health has not been evaluated in detail. The objectives

of this in vivo study were to click here assess the creation of three-dimensional spinal deformity during six months of growth modulation compared with that in sham-surgery controls, and to compare, with use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gross morphological, histological, and biochemical analyses, disc health between control animals and animals treated with a spinal


Methods: Six immature Yucatan mini-pigs underwent anterior spinal instrumentation with vertebral screws connected by a polyethylene tether over four consecutive thoracic vertebrae (T8-T11). An additional six animals underwent sham surgery (screw placement only [the control group]). Radiographs were obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, and monthly thereafter selleckchem during six months of growth. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI studies were performed

ex vivo, and the spines were sectioned for histological and biochemical analyses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare six-month postoperative PLX3397 data between the control and tethered animals, with the alpha level of significance set at 0.05.

Results: Radiographs and CT images demonstrated the creation of significant three-dimensional deformity (p < 0.013) in the tethered animals compared with the controls. Macroscopic, MRI, and histological evaluation revealed no signs of disc degeneration, with a bulging gelatinous nucleus pulposus, discrete fibrous anular lamellae, and uniformly hyperintense T2-signal intensity within the nuclei pulposi. Biochemical analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the nuclei pulposus between the tethered and control vertebrae; however, the water content (p < 0.001) of both sides of the anulus fibrosus and the glycosaminoglycan content (p < 0.001) of the left side of the anulus fibrosus differed significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Six months of spinal growth modulation created significant spinal deformity in all three planes compared with what was found in the sham-surgery controls. Although disc health was qualitatively maintained, quantitative changes in the anulus fibrosus water content and the disc height were observed on the side opposite to the tether.

Under normal conditions, the hsp83 expression in the ovary is abo

Under normal conditions, the hsp83 expression in the ovary is about 3-fold higher than in the whole body at both stages.

No significant difference in hsp83 expression was observed between the two ovarian developmental stages regardless if the beetles were treated with heat shock or not. The expression of the HSP83 protein in the whole body could also be induced with heat stress in newly hatched and mature beetles. However, in the ovary, HSP83 was only expressed in the follicle cells of mature beetles and not in newly hatched beetles, regardless if the beetles were treated with heat shock or not. Furthermore, the females were not able to produce mature oocytes after knock-down of the hsp83 expression by injecting dsRNA. These results

suggest that the HSP83 ARS-1620 manufacturer protein is involved in protection against heat stress and could be involved PF-562271 datasheet in oogenesis during ovarian maturation of T. castaneum.”
“Microcapsules composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [P(NIPAM-co-MAA)] cores and ethylcellulose matrix were prepared by an emulsification and spray-drying method. First, water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were prepared using P(NIPAM-co-MAA) solution in distilled water (3%) as a water phase, and ethylcellulose solution in dichloromethane (8%) as an oil phase. The emulsion was spray-dried around 50 degrees C to evaporate dichloromethane, and then the resulting particle was air-dried to remove

residual water. Blue dextran loaded in the cores of microcapsules readily released below lower critical solution temperature (LCST) but the release was suppressed above the phase transition temperature. It is believed that the NIPAM copolymer Selleckchem CHIR98014 acts as a thermal trap for blue dextran when temperature is above LCST. In addition, the microcapsules were also pH-sensitive in terms of release, which could be explained by the pH-dependent contraction and expansion of the copolymer. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 421-427, 2010″
“This review explores the relation between evolution, ecology, and culture in determining human food preferences. The basic physiology and morphology of Homo sapiens sets boundaries to our eating habits, but within these boundaries human food preferences are remarkably varied, both within and between populations. This does not mean that variation is entirely cultural or learned, because genes and culture may coevolve to determine variation in dietary habits. This coevolution has been well elucidated in some cases, such as lactose tolerance (lactase persistence) in adults, but is less well understood in others, such as in favism in the Mediterranean and other regions. Genetic variation in bitter taste sensitivity has been well documented, and it affects food preferences (eg, avoidance of cruciferous vegetables). The selective advantage of this variation is not clear.

In our study, the DNA yield and purity obtained using six methods

In our study, the DNA yield and purity obtained using six methods – namely three DNA isolation protocols and three commercial DNA isolation kits – were compared. Modifications were made and the isolation steps were shortened in the previously developed DNA isolation protocols to achieve more rapid and practical protocols. The samples were taken from plants grown Selleck BKM120 under vineyard and greenhouse conditions in two periods during spring and autumn. The best results among the six DNA isolation methods were discussed. The results were also supported with polymerase chain reaction analyses conducted with isolated DNAs.”
“Continuing downward trends in the population

sizes of many species, in the conservation status of threatened species, and in the quality, extent and connectedness of habitats are of increasing concern. Identifying the attributes of declining populations will help predict how biodiversity will be impacted and guide conservation actions. However, the drivers of biodiversity declines have changed over time and average trends

in abundance or distributional change hide significant variation among species. While some populations are declining rapidly, the majority remain relatively stable and others are increasing. Here we dissect out some of the changing drivers of population and geographic range change, and identify biological and geographical Rapamycin price correlates of winners and losers in two large datasets covering local population sizes of vertebrates since 1970 and the distributions of Galliform birds over the last two centuries.

We find weak evidence for ecological and biological traits being predictors of local decline in range or abundance, but stronger evidence for the role of local anthropogenic threats and environmental change. An improved understanding of the dynamics of threat processes and how they may affect different species will help to guide better conservation planning in a continuously changing world.”
“Nonvolatile bipolar resistive switching has been observed in an Au/BiFeO3/Pt structure, where a Schottky contact and a quasi-Ohmic contact were formed at the Au/BiFeO3 and BiFeO3/Pt interface, Procaspase activation respectively. By changing the polarity of the external voltage, the Au/BiFeO3/Pt is switched between two stable resistance states without an electroforming process. The resistance ratio is larger than two orders of magnitude. The resistive switching is understood by the electric field-induced carrier trapping and detrapping, which changes the depletion layer thickness at the Au/BiFeO3 interface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3601113]“
“Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba.

Although the

Although the buy TH-302 existence of GABA- and ENK-immunoreactive (ir) profiles in the rNTS has been demonstrated, there are no morphological data revealing the connections between them. In the present study,

using immunofluorescent and electron microscopic methods, we examined their relationship in the rNTS of rat. Results showed the following: (1) dense ENK-ir fibers and terminals and GABA-ir cell bodies, fibers, and terminals were observed in the rNTS; (2) ENK-ir terminals mainly make symmetric synapses with GABA-ir and immunonegative somas and dendrites; (3) co-existence of ENK/GABA-ir axon terminals and convergence of ENK- and GABA-ir terminals on one immunonegative soma or dendrite can also be observed. These results suggest that ENK should inhibit directly or excite indirectly (by blocking the inhibition of the GABAergic neurons) the gustatory neurons in the rNTS.”
“The fluorescent amphiphilic block copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-b-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA)2-(N-carbazolyl) ethyl methacrylate (CzEMA) was synthesized via living oxyanion-initiated polymerization. mPEG-b-PECACzEMA was characterized by gel permeation chromatography,

H-1-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that the polymerization was well controlled with a narrow molecular weight distribution. The mPEG-b-PECACzEMA nanoparticles prepared by Topoisomerase inhibitor nanoprecipitation techniques showed a JQ-EZ-05 research buy narrow size distribution with an average diameter of less than 100 nm. The mPEG-b-PECA-CzEMA exhibited a strong carbazole fluorescence. Furthermore, it was found

that the fluorescence intensity of mPEG-b-PECA-CzEMA was sensitive to a change in solvent. The results indicate that a subtle change in the state of the polymer micellar association may have altered the state of carbazole groups, which was responsible for the fluorescence emission. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3575-3579, 2012″
“Quadratic magneto-optical Kerr effects (QMOKE) are investigated in epitaxial Co2MnSi thin films as a function of the post-deposition annealing temperature. We determine the amplitude of the QMOKE signal for different annealing temperatures, which provide various degrees of L2(1) crystal ordering, as manifested by X-ray diffraction. We observe that QMOKE is significantly present only when the L2(1) ordering phase is also present, and that the QMOKE signal increases with the higher degree of L2(1) ordering. Additionally, we notice that the linear magneto-optical Kerr effect (LMOKE) decreases with higher annealing temperature. A comparison of the linear and quadratic MOKE contributions shows the amplitudes are of similar magnitude. From these results, we conclude that the presence of QMOKE is linked to the higher degree of L2(1) ordering in Co2MnSi. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Results: All six women were unprepared for the strenuous experien

Results: All six women were unprepared for the strenuous experience of undergoing a BR. They described the process as difficult and painful, entailing several operations and an unexpectedly long recovery period. They were also unprepared for how arduous it would be, both physically and emotionally. However, getting a BR had been important to all the women. The BR process was captured in four themes: (1) uninformed care; (2) arduous experiences; (3) body alterations; and (4) moving on.

Conclusions: Obtaining adequate information and being involved in the decision-making process along the pathway of a BR could help the women to prepare physically and emotionally for the strenuous experiences

related to reconstructive surgery. PI3K inhibitor (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although augmentation was first described in 1996 and is characterized by an overall increase in severity of RLS symptoms (earlier onset of symptoms during the day, faster onset of symptoms when at rest, spreading of symptoms to the upper limbs and trunk, and shorter duration of the treatment effect), precise diagnostic criteria were not established until 2003. These criteria were updated in 2007 to

form a new definition of augmentation based on multicenter studies. Augmentation should be differentiated from early morning rebound, natural progression Screening Library purchase of the disease, tolerance, and neuroleptic-induced akathisia. Treatment strategies will depend on the degree of clinical significance

but will be AG-881 inhibitor based on the use of longer-acting drugs and a reduction or substitution of the dopaminergic agents. The most effective preventive measure is to keep the dose of the dopaminergic medication as low as possible, ensuring that it does not exceed the dose recommended by regulatory authorities. RLS augmentation needs to be treated only if it is clinically relevant-that is, if it has a significant impact on the patient’s daily activities. Mild cases should be followed closely, however. In severe cases, a change of treatment (sometimes even within the same class of drugs) can be effective, although before taking this step, it should be verified that all factors that may affect augmentation (changes in lifestyle, iron deficiency, serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been excluded.”
“Sirtuins are known as regulators of age-dependent gene transcription and chromatin modification in yeast and in animals, but information about their occurrence and role in plants is scarce. Sirtuin-like sequences were amplified using two highly degenerate primers designed comparing sirtuin sequences of seven different plant species, and characterised at the sequence level in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Barbera clone R4.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be one of the causes of

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be one of the causes of recurrent or chemoresistant ovarian cancer, and microRNAs are regulatory molecules newly implicated to control a variety of cellular processes, including CSCs. Therefore, we identified ovarian CSC-specific microRNAs and investigated their

clinicopathological implication in ovarian carcinomas.

Methods: We isolated ALDH1 (+) cell population using the Aldefluor assay, and examined the differential expression pattern of miRNAs between ALDH1 (+) and ALDH1 (-) cells using a high-throughput microRNA microarray. We further investigated the expression patterns of differentially expressed miRNAs in human ovarian cancer samples using LY2835219 the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and analyzed their clinical impact in patients with ovarian cancer.

Results: We found that high ALDH1 expression was

associated with chemoresistance in in vitro and ex vivo samples (p = 0.024). We identified six miRNAs, including miR-23b, www.selleckchem.com/products/napabucasin.html miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-346, miR-424, and miR-503, overexpressed in ALDH1 (+) cells, and they were significantly upregulated in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells (1.4 similar to 3.5-fold) and tumor samples (2.8 similar to 5.5-fold) compared with chemosensitive group. Upregulation of ALDH1 (p = 0.019) and miR-503 (p = 0.033) correlated with high clinical stage, and upregulation of miR-27a was related with distant metastasis (p = 0.046) in patients with ovarian cancer.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ALDH1 is a useful marker for enriching ovarian CSCs, and high expression of ALDH1 and its related miRNAs, particularly miR-23b, miR-27b, miR-424, and miR-503, are significantly implicated in chemoresistance

and tumor progression in ovarian cancer.”
“Objective: To investigate the relationship between both food intake and circadian rhythmicity and serum calcitonin in the same individuals.

Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects, 10 males and 8 females, aged 22 to 24 years, were recruited. Serum calcitonin level was measured three times: at buy Napabucasin 0800 after a 9-hour overnight fast, at 0900 postprandially, and at 1700 after another 9-hour fast. The same protocol was repeated once.

Results: The mean calcitonin levels (at 0800) were 3.92 pg/mL (SD, 2.5 pg/mL) on Day 1 and 3.52 pg/mL (SD, 2.1 pg/mL) on Day 2. Mean postprandial calcitonin (at 0900) was 9.46 pg/mL (SD, 8.6 pg/mL) on Day 1 and 9.91 pg/mL (SD, 6.9 pg/mL) on Day 2. Mean fasting calcitonin in the evening (at 1700) was 6.74 pg/mL (SD, 4.73 pg/mL) on Day 1 and 6.49 pg/mL (SD, 3.57 pg/mL) on Day 2. There was no significant difference in the mean calcitonin level on days 1 and 2 for any of the three time points examined. Statistically significant differences were found between postprandial and evening calcitonin levels and the fasting levels on Day 1 (P = .

The only significant gene ontologies represented among the 46 rem

The only significant gene ontologies represented among the 46 remaining features after filtering relate to host exported proteins from multi-gene families.

Conclusions: The malaria parasite’s molecular responses to PN and CQ treatment are similar in terms of the genes and pathways affected. However, PN appears to exert a more rapid response than CQ. The faster action of PN may explain why PN is more efficacious than CQ, particularly against CQ resistant isolates. In agreement with several other microarray studies of drug action on the parasite, it is not possible, however, to discern mechanism of drug action from the

drug-responsive genes.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of rufinamide for treatment of epileptic learn more spasms.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated with rufinamide for epileptic spasms from January 2009 to March 2010. Age, presence of hypsarrhythmia, change in seizure PCI-34051 chemical structure frequency following rufinamide initiation, and side effects were assessed. Patients

who had a >= 50% reduction in spasm frequency were considered responders.

Results: Of all 107 children treated with rufinamide during the study period, 38 (36%) had epileptic spasms. Median patient age was 7 years (range: 17 months to 23). One patient had hypsarrhythmia at the time of treatment with rufinamide, and 9 other patients had a history of hypsarrhythmia. Median starting dose of rufinamide was 9 mg/kg/day (range: 2-18) and median final treatment dose was 39 mg/kg/day (range: 8-92). All patients were receiving concurrent antiepileptic drug therapy, with the median number of antiepileptic

Selleckchem Pexidartinib drugs being 3 (range: 2-6). Median duration of follow-up since starting rufinamide was 171 days (range: 10-408). Responder rate was 53%. Median reduction in spasm frequency was 50% (interquartile range = -56 to 85%. P<0.05). Two patients (5%) achieved a >99% reduction in spasms. Rufinamide was discontinued in 7 of 38 patients (18%) because of lack of efficacy, worsening seizures, or other side effects. Minor side effects were reported in 14 of 38 patients (37%).

Conclusions: Rufinamide appears to be a well-tolerated and efficacious adjunctive therapeutic option for children with epileptic spasms. A prospective study is warranted to validate our observations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings in Germany were temporally, spatially, and phylogenetically linked to outbreaks in wild aquatic birds.

The objectives of the reported study were to assess in vivo gastr

The objectives of the reported study were to assess in vivo gastrointestinal survival of orally administered Pediococcus pentosaceus OZF using an animal model BALB/c mice, and to examine its effects on the immune response. Following oral administration to mice, the ability of Pediococcus pentosaceus OZF to pass and survive through the mouse gastrointestinal system was investigated by analyzing the recovery of the strain in fecal samples. Microbiological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods proved that the strain OZF could overcome specific conditions in the gastrointestinal

tract of mice and reach the intestine alive after ingestion. To observe the effect of oral administration on immune response, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-gamma were measured by ELISA, and the strain OZF was found to cause increases in IL-6 synthesis in regularly fed Liproxstatin-1 mouse Selleck Galardin mice. However,

stimulation was carried out with various concentrations of bacterial ssDNA and heat killed cells of Pediococcus pentosaceus OZF. The heat killed cells of the strain OZF were shown to produce IFN-gamma independently from IL-12. On the other hand, a significant difference between control and experimental group was noticed when lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 (toll like receptor) ligand, was used. Overall, Pediococcus pentosaceus OZF may be a valuable probiotic strain for therapeutic uses. Nevertheless, further studies on the mechanisms of immunomodulatory effect will allow for better clarification of the immune functions of this strain.”
“Aim: To assess

the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with mental disorders in Japan.

Material and Methods: We conducted this retrospective cohort study to examine the patients who delivered at Nagoya University Hospital (2005-2009). Thereafter, the patients without any complications other than mental disorders and Rabusertib inhibitor with several sources of psychiatric information were included in the present series, and the maternal and neonatal outcomes between patients with or without maternal mental disorders were compared. The psychiatric outcomes and the adverse effects of psychotropic drugs were also examined.

Results: A total of 1649 women delivered during this period, and 63 of them were complicated by maternal mental disorders. After the selection of patients for comparison purposes, women with mental disorders (n = 51) had a slightly but significantly shorter gestational age (39.2 +/- 0.2 vs 39.8 +/- 0.1 weeks, P = 0.003) and smaller birth weight (2993.0 +/- 56.7 vs 3152.4 +/- 23.6 g, P = 0.010) compared with the control group (n = 278). Intervention by psychiatrists was required for only 10 patients, and no patients required termination of pregnancy due to exacerbation of mental disorders.

Fire-retardant additives reduce the flammability, smoke level, an

Fire-retardant additives reduce the flammability, smoke level, and toxicity of polyurethane foams with some degradation in other characteristics. It can be concluded that despite many significant attempts, no commercial solution to the fire retardancy of polyurethane foams without some loss of physical and mechanical properties is available. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 1115-1143, 2009″
“Study Design. Retrospective case series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with presumed infantile idiopathic Hippo pathway inhibitor scoliosis (IIS).


To identify the prevalence of intraspinal anomalies in patients with presumed IIS at a single, large volume institution and further define the role for a screening MRI.

Summary of Background Data. Idiopathic

scoliosis in patients less than 10 years of age has been shown to carry a higher prevalence of concordant intraspinal anomalies, up to 20%, in juveniles, when compared to the adolescent age group. Few studies exist assessing the prevalence of intraspinal anomalies in the IIS patient population. Dobbs et al (2002) reported a 21.7% prevalence selleck screening library of neural axis abnormalities in 46 patients with presumed IIS across 3 combined spinal deformity clinics and recommended a screening MRI for all IIS patients with a curve >20 degrees.

Methods. A retrospective review of the medical records of 54 patients at a single institution

with a presumed diagnosis of IIS was performed. All patients satisfied the strict inclusion criteria of: curve >= 20 degrees, age <36 months at diagnosis, normal neurologic examination (i.e., normal tone, motor strength, reflexes, etc.), absence of any concomitant syndromes or congenital anomalies, and an MRI of the spine from skull to coccyx.

Results. MRI revealed a neural axis abnormality in 7 (13%) of 54 patients who underwent an MRI. In this subset of 7 patients, 5 (71.4%) required neurosurgical intervention. Tethered cord requiring surgical release was identified AP24534 mouse in 3 patients, Chiari malformation requiring surgical decompression was found in 2 patients, and a small non-operative syrinx was found in 2 patients.

Conclusion. This study represents the largest evaluation of intraspinal anomalies in IIS to date. Our patient population exhibited a smaller percentage (13%) of neural axis abnormalities than previously reported. On the basis of these findings, the close observation may be a reasonable alternative to an immediate screening MRI in patients presenting with presumed IIS and a curve >20 degrees.”
“This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) seed extract (LSE) on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. The DPPH free radical scavenging activities of LSE increased in a concentration dependent manner.

Patient demographics, the performed procedure, adverse drug react

Patient demographics, the performed procedure, adverse drug reactions, hemodynamic data, and the results of blood gas analysis before and after infusion were documented with Selleck GSK2879552 a focus on changes in acid-base, electrolyte, and glucose concentrations.

Results: In 66 neonates (ASA I-IV; postmenstrual age 38 +/- 4, range 25-45 weeks; body weight 2.9 +/- 0.9, range 0.65-4.6 kg), the mean infusion rate was 10.4 +/- 3.2 (range 4.5-19.6) ml.kg(-1) h(-1) BS-G1. During the infusion,

hemoglobin, hematocrit, bicarbonate, base excess, anion gap, strong ion difference, and calcium decreased, and chloride and glucose increased significantly within the physiological range. All other measured parameters including sodium and lactate remained stable. Neither hypoglycemia (glucose < 3 mM) nor hyperglycemia (glucose > 10 mM) was documented after Ilomastat ic50 BS-G1 infusion. No adverse

drug reactions were reported.

Conclusion: The study shows that the intraoperative use of an isotonic balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose and a mean infusion rate of 10 ml.kg(-1) h(-1) helps to avoid acid-base dysbalance, hyponatraemia, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and hyperglycemia in surgical neonates. A careful intraoperative monitoring and adaptation of the infusion rate as needed is crucial because the glucose and fluid requirements may vary widely between subjects.”
“We study theoretically the electronic entropy and specific heat in diffusive superconductor-normal metal-superconductor Josephson

junctions. In particular, we consider the influence of nonidealities occurring in an actual experiment, such as the presence of barriers at the normal (N) metal- superconductor interfaces, the spin-flip, and inelastic scattering in the N-metal region and quasiparticle subgap states in the superconductors. We find that spin-flip and inelastic scattering do not have, for typical parameters values, a large effect. On the contrary, the presence of barriers suppresses the superconducting correlations in the N region, with the consequence that the entropy and Ispinesib mouse the specific heat get reduced eventually to those in the absence of superconductivity for opaque interfaces. Finally we suggest an experiment and check that it is possible, under realistic conditions, to measure the dependence of electronic specific heat on the phase difference between the superconductors. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3121210]“
“The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in 1997 has stimulated a rapid development of non-invasive prenatal testing. The recent advent of massively parallel sequencing has allowed the analysis of circulating cell-free fetal DNA to be performed with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 are now robustly detectable in maternal plasma and such analyses have been available clinically since 2011.