gambiae s s in Ghana In this study, the ability of these vecto

gambiae s. s. in Ghana. In this study, the ability of these vectors in transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti in nine lymphatic filariasis endemic communities in Gomoa District of Ghana Alvocidib concentration after four rounds of MDA with ivermectin and albendazole was investigated.\n\nMethods: After mass screening of inhabitants

in these communities, twelve consenting volunteers with different intensities of microfilariae (mf) slept under partly opened mosquito nets as sources of mf blood meal. Hourly collection of mosquitoes and finger-pricked blood were taken from 21.00 to 06.00 hours the following day. For each hour, half of the mosquitoes collected were immediately killed and dissected for mf. The remaining half were maintained up to 13 days for parasite maturation. Parasitaemia and infection rates in the mosquitoes were determined by microscopy. The mosquitoes were identified by microscopy Selleck Nirogacestat and molecular techniques.\n\nResults: A total of 1,083 participants were screened and the overall parasite prevalence was 1.6% with mf intensities ranging from 0 to 59 per 100 mu l and geometric mean intensity of 1.1 mf per ml of blood. Of the 564 mosquitoes collected, 350 (62.1%) were Anopheles spp., from which 310 (88.6%) were An. funestus and 32 (9.1%) An. gambiae. Six anopheline mosquitoes (1.7%) were found infected with L-1, but no larva was observed in any of the mosquitoes maintained

up to 13 days. Molecular studies showed all An. gambiae s. l. to be An. gambiae s. s., of which 21 (70%) were of the M molecular form.\n\nConclusion: At low-level parasitaemia after 4 rounds of MDA, there was no recovery of infective stage larvae of W. bancrofti in An. funestus s. l. as well as M and S forms of An. gambiae.”

this study, river stage variation derived from satellite altimetry was used to assess the water level, monthly discharge, and annual water yield at six virtual gauging stations at the braided reaches of the Brahmaputra River. The braided reaches of the river dynamically change their planform, thalweg line, and aggradation or degradation period. Dihydrotestosterone mw Stage records derived from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency and Topex/Poseidon of NASA/CNES were used for the period 2002-2010. Spatial interpolation and datum correction were applied on altimetry-derived river stage records before analysis. A correlation and error analysis between the in situ and satellite-altimetry-derived stages was carried out for these stations for both monsoon and non-monsoon seasons. Yearly optical satellite images were used for qualitative assessment of temporal variations in aggradation/degradation phases at the gauging stations. Using the pseudo-rating curve, discharges at two virtual gauging stations were estimated. The results show that the altimetry-estimated discharges are of good agreement with observed discharge for the monsoon months (June-September) as compared with the non-monsoon months (October-May).

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