In a CPA-loading protocol, steps must be designed to minimize the

In a CPA-loading protocol, steps must be designed to minimize the exposure time at each temperature. Therefore, knowledge of CPA diffusion in cartilage, by measurement BI 2536 price or by calculation, is required for the design of effective and efficient CPA-loading protocols. However, modeling efforts for predicting CPA diffusion in tissues such as articular cartilage have been few and limited until recently. Muldrew et al. used Fick’s law to calculate the

diffusion coefficient of the Me2SO in cartilage for further predicting the overall Me2SO uptake in cartilage over time [76]. Maxwell–Stefan transport equations were used by Xu and Cui (2003) in modeling the co-transport of multiple solutes in a porous media for applications in tissues such as cartilage [114] – Maxwell–Stefan equations are a more sophisticated set of equations from which Fick’s law can be derived using some simplifying assumptions including an ideal-dilute assumption for solutes. Two different studies

were published in 2008 by Zhang and Pegg [115] and Mukherjee et al. [71] on modeling CPA diffusion in cartilage. Mukherjee et al. used Fick’s law of diffusion to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of the CPA in cartilage. That information was Dabrafenib order further used to design hypothetical stepwise cooling protocols and predict the chondrocyte volume response to CPA loading. Lawson et al. used the same approach to simulate stepwise loading and removal of CPA from tissues [62]. These predictions are of high practical importance for designing and optimizing liquidus-tracking or stepwise loading-cooling steps. Whether or not Fick’s law is capable of making accurate predictions is another important question. To answer this question, Zhang and Pegg [115] utilized the triphasic model of cartilage by Lai et Uroporphyrinogen III synthase al. [59], developed in the biomechanical engineering field, to describe the movement of the CPA in cartilage. As novel as the

study by Zhang and Pegg was, some of the assumptions were insufficient for the specific case of vitrification solutions, and basically reduced the model to Fick’s law. For example, the assumption of ideal and dilute solutions for vitrifying concentrations of the CPA was insufficient. Also, osmotic movement of the interstitial fluid was ignored in the analysis. In addition, in part due to lack of appropriate data, no values were reported for the transport parameters of the model other than the diffusion coefficient of the CPA. Therefore, the final conclusion of the study was that there were no essential differences between the biomechanical model and Fick’s law in calculating transport in cartilage. Abazari et al.

For a more nuanced understanding, these somewhat crude metrics an

For a more nuanced understanding, these somewhat crude metrics and scores should be supplemented with qualitative data from the interviews, focus groups or document reviews. Whether the framework is used as a list or recommendations, buy Bortezomib a tool for monitoring and evaluation or as a scorecard, ultimately the goal of using the framework is to improve MPA ecological and socio-economic outcomes through adapting and improving governance, management and local development inputs. To be

useful, results and methods need to be communicated in a transparent and accessible fashion. There are several limitations to the type of framework proposed here. First, no list of indicators is ever complete and, as such, a framework such as this should be seen as a living document. Second,

all indicators are not applicable to all contexts. Unfortunately, there is no “magic bullet” formula that can be applied to achieve beneficial socio-economic and ecological outcomes for all MPAs. Third, measuring Selleckchem HSP inhibitor inputs is not a replacement for monitoring ecological and socio-economic outcome variables. Ideally, measuring inputs and outcome variables should be done in tandem as part of a long-term interdisciplinary program of monitoring and evaluation. This would allow researchers to understand better which inputs lead most effectively to desired outcomes in a variety of contexts. Fourth, calculating scores as suggested above and using this to assess

likelihood assumes that all indicators have the same value, clearly an untenable proposition, given the emphasis that this review has placed on the importance of context-specific analyses. Thus, the scores should be treated with caution. Finally, this particular framework is likely more relevant to MPAs in a Low Development Country (LDC) context; however, the lessons explored and recommendations made herein also have implications for MPA creation Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and management in developing and developed countries. MPAs have the potential to produce beneficial ecological and socio-economic outcomes. This review has identified a number of inputs that can contribute to the achievement of beneficial ecological and socio-economic outcomes from MPAs. In the real world, of course, it is challenging to reconcile the complexity and heterogeneity of real world MPA biophysical and community contexts and the uncontrollability and uncertainty of macro level factors. Our collective understanding of what combination of factors will ultimately lead to successful outcomes in the multiple contexts within which MPAs operate is still limited. However, a renewed focus on analyzing and providing place-specific governance, management and development inputs will likely lead to more ecologically productive and socio-economically beneficial MPAs. The framework presented in this paper is a step in that direction.

Subsequently, yeast cells were stained with the fluorescent reage

Subsequently, yeast cells were stained with the fluorescent reagents following the manufacturer’s instructions. This viability kit utilizes a mixture of the green-fluorescent stain SYTO® 9 with the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). These stains Vemurafenib purchase differ not only in their spectral characteristics, but also in their

ability to penetrate cells, so that SYTO® 9 stains the DNA of all cells irrespective of their membrane integrity, whereas PI penetrates only cells with damaged membranes. In addition, PI is able to quench the fluorescence of SYTO® 9. As a result, after staining with a mixture of these two fluorescent dyes, intact cells will appear green, whereas cells with damaged membranes selleck screening library will stain red. Yeast cells were visualized using a Nikon Eclipse E800 fluorescence microscope equipped with a Nikon Coolpix 4500 digital imager. Three independent experiments were performed.

A mid-logarithmic phase C. albicans culture (107 cells/mL) was incubated in PDB medium for 3 h at 30 °C in the presence of 250 μM of the synthetic peptide Hb 98–114 (2 times its MIC), plated on PDB agar, and colony-forming units were counted after 18-h incubation at 30 °C. Female ticks collected 2–7 days after host detachment were cooled on ice and immersed in 70% ethanol prior to dissection in cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, 137 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, pH 7.2). Midguts were transferred to centrifuge tubes containing ice-cold sodium acetate buffer (100 mM C2H3NaO3, pH 4.5) with the protease inhibitors: 10 μM pepstatin, 10 μM E-64 and 50 μM EDTA. Fifty midguts were homogenized in a Potter tissue homogenizer and sonicated for 3 cycles of 30 s each in a Vibracell sonicator

(Sonics & Materials, Inc., USA) for complete disruption of cells and tissues. The homogenate was centrifuged for 10 min at 5000 × g and the supernatant was Urocanase collected for peptide purification. The first purification step was performed in a 10 kDa cut-off Amicon Ultra-4 centrifugal filter (Millipore, USA). The filtered sample was vacuum-dried and reconstituted in ultra-pure water. The second purification step was performed in a high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC, LC-10 Shimadzu, USA) equipped with a C18 reverse-phase semi-preparative column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm, Vydac). Peptides were eluted with a linear gradient from 2% to 60% acetonitrile (ACN) in 0.046% trifluoroacetic acid (TA) over 120 min, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Peptide absorbance was monitored at 225 nm and eluted fractions were manually collected. The third purification step was performed by RP-HPLC under the same conditions described above, but using a C18 reverse phase analytical column (5 μm, 1.0 mm × 150 mm, Vydac) with a linear gradient from 35% to 45% ACN in 0.

Considerable artifact was seen in the diffusion sequence with the

Considerable artifact was seen in the diffusion sequence with the stainless steel stent but not in the nitinol containing stents (Figure 5). Mean maximum radial distortion on dMRI scans was 3.4 mm and 3.8 mm in the nitinol containing stents versus 11.8 mm in the stainless steel stent. Additionally, the nitinol containing stents produced minimal torque in T2 or diffusion weighted sequences. In the current study, we found an association between pretreatment tumor ADC values and subsequent tumor response to chemoradiation in patients with pancreatic cancer. There was a significant

correlation between pre-treatment mean tumor ADC values and the percent tumor cell destruction observed Sirolimus supplier at the time of surgery. Additionally, analysis of pretreatment ADC histograms

for each tumor demonstrated a shift towards higher ADC values in tumors that later responded to treatment. These preliminary findings suggest dMRI may be useful as an imaging biomarker in pancreatic cancer. An early buy BYL719 imaging biomarker for patients with pancreatic cancer is greatly needed. Treatment with chemoradiation is associated with considerable toxicity and a poor outcome for many patients [1], [20] and [21]. By identifying either before treatment or part way into a treatment course if a patient is responding, we have the potential to adapt therapy. Patients with nonresponding tumors can have therapy intensified or modified. Additionally, dMRI could be useful to determine if patients are resectable after chemoradiation therapy. For patients who are borderline resectable, it is likely some become resectable after chemoradiation but Lepirudin are never offered surgery because pancreatic tumors regress slowly on CT imaging [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Although longitudinal dMRI was not accomplished in this study, additional information related to spatially varying ADC changes within the tumor mass could be obtained after initiation of treatment to provide information related to tumor response and identify patients who may be resectable despite

what is seen on CT [18]. A limited number of reports have looked at dMRI in pancreatic cancer. One retrospective study found tumors with low ADC values at baseline responded poorly to systemic therapy, consistent with our findings [22]. Another report found a correlation between preoperative ADC values and the amount of tumor fibrosis in patients who did not receive preoperative therapy. Tumors with a low ADC were found to be densely fibrotic [23]. The large amount of fibrotic tissue in pancreatic tumors may limit the delivery of radiosensitizing systemic therapy and lower the amount of oxygen available for radiation induced free radical formation thereby decreasing the effectiveness of chemoradiation therapy [24].

No exame objetivo destacou-se pele e mucosas ligeiramente desidra

No exame objetivo destacou-se pele e mucosas ligeiramente desidratadas, temperatura axilar de 37,2 °C e dor abdominal difusa ligeira a moderada. Analiticamente, apresentava hemoglobina (Hb) de

13,2 g/dl, com leucocitose de 14 100 cél/mm3 e elevação da proteína C reativa (PCR) com 5,2 mg/dl. Nesta altura, a doente iniciou em ambulatório ciprofloxacina (500 mg de 12/12H via oral) e terapêutica sintomática com antiemético e antipirético, aconselhando-se reforço hídrico e dieta com restrição de gorduras, resíduos e lactose. Todavia, foi observado um agravamento Apitolisib da sintomatologia ao longo das primeiras 96 horas após o início da antibioterapia com aumento do número de dejeções diárias (6-7) com presença esporádica de sangue, persistência das cólicas abdominais, anorexia e astenia marcada. Nesta ocasião encontrava-se desidratada, pálida, febril (38,0°-38,5 °C), taquicárdica EPZ015666 cost (112 bpm), hipotensa (TA – 95/47 mmHg), apresentando o abdómen distendido e doloroso à palpação sem evidência de irritação peritoneal. Laboratorialmente, destacava-se descida da Hb (11,8 g/dl), agravamento dos parâmetros inflamatórios (leucócitos – 15 400 cél/mm3; PCR – 15,1 mg/dl; velocidade de sedimentação – 40 mm/hora), insuficiência renal ligeira (creatinina – 1,4 mg/dl; ureia – 72 mg/dl) e hipocaliémia (K+ – 3,1 mmol/L). A radiografia do abdómen em

pé mostrou distensão do cego e transverso com cerca de 4,5 cm de diâmetro, sem níveis hidroaéreos. A ecografia Montelukast Sodium abdominal e a tomografia computorizada abdominal revelaram espessamento parietal

de todo o cólon, mais exuberante no cego, e adenopatias na raiz do mesentério. Neste contexto, a doente foi internada iniciando-se correção hidroeletrolítica, terapêutica sintomática antipirética e analgésica (paracetamol) e antibioterapia com ciprofloxacina e metronidazol. Nas primeiras 48 horas do internamento, a doente manteve quadro clínico com 7 dejeções diárias associadas a quadro de toxicidade sistémica com febre, taquicárdia (100-110 bpm) e persistência dos parâmetros inflamatórios elevados. Repetiu radiografia do abdómen, que mostrou aumento da dilatação cólica ao nível do cego e cólon transverso, atingindo este último um diâmetro de 6,5 cm, compatível com quadro de megacólon tóxico (fig. 1). Nesse mesmo dia, realizou retossigmoidoscopia flexível, com insuflação mínima e progressão somente até aos 35 cm, registando-se em toda a mucosa observada a presença de múltiplas erosões e ulcerações superficiais com exsudado mucopurulento, associadas a marcada hiperémia e perda da rede vascular da mucosa (fig. 2). Foi colocada a hipótese diagnóstica de uma primeira manifestação de CU com atividade grave complicada com megacólon tóxico, não sendo possível nesta altura a exclusão de etiologia infecciosa.

The attributes of co-management include the incorporation of trad

The attributes of co-management include the incorporation of traditional and scientific knowledge into management, the pivotal role played by local stakeholders leading to increased AG-14699 empowerment for local communities and reduced enforcement costs, and the creation of partnerships across organizations at various scales which helps to mitigate against local and macro level uncertainties [89] and [111]. Legitimacy and support are gained through the sharing of power and participation [107]. Yet co-management also faces challenges related to increased bureaucracy, funding uncertainty, time commitments, local capacity and willingness to participate, and achievement of

an appropriate balance of governmental and community input and control [120], [139] and [155]. McConney and Pena [156] recommend that attention is paid to building and supporting the capacity for co-management. Co-management could be seen as a critical

response to the failures of the top-down regime. Yet Singleton [121] notes the potential irony of the current focus on creating systems of co-management when she comments: “It would be unfortunate if the search for an alternative to one-size-fits-all, top-down regulatory styles resulted in rigidly proscribed processes of incorporating diverse actors into MPA processes—a sort of new orthodoxy of collaborative practice”. Institutional diversity and a mixture of top-down, bottom-up, and community-based incentive approaches, Jones et al. [37] suggest, Transmembrane Transporters activator are the most effective approach to MPA

governance and the level of co-management should be designed to fit the socio-political context. Where communities are involved there is also a general convergence around the creation of multiple-use MPAs that incorporate a no-take zone [24], [94], [96] and [157]. Since the creation of strict no-take MPAs is often met with opposition by affected fishers, Perera and de Vos [149] suggest that high levels of resource dependency in the developing world may make the creation of exclusive reserves untenable. However, no-take zones may be a necessary part of providing the full extent of ecological and socio-economic benefits to the individuals whose livelihoods depends on the quality of the natural base [5]. In order Avelestat (AZD9668) to achieve the most benefit for different user groups and to reduce conflict, the creation of zones for different user groups may also be required [4], [68] and [158]. In spite of the general convergence around co-management and multiple-use MPAs containing no-take areas, there are scenarios where other formats such as privately owned and managed reserves or Entrepreneurial MPAs [90] or marine extractive reserves [96] may produce the most successful outcomes for both conservation and communities within a particular context.

Patients were recruited according to the updated diagnostic crite

Patients were recruited according to the updated diagnostic criteria of IIH and papilledema was documented in all subjects by an ophthalmological examination including funduscopy. Twenty-five individuals with other neurological disorders served as controls. Sonographic evaluation of the optic nerve was possible in all participants. Compared to controls the ONSD was significantly enlarged among patients with IIH bilaterally [6.4 ± 0.6 mm vs. 5.4 ± 0.5 mm].

After lumbar puncture with a therapeutic removal of 30–50 ml of CSF we observed a significant decrease of the ONSD on both sides (right ONSD 5.8 ± 0.7 mm, left ONSD 5.9 ± 0.7 mm) (Fig. 1). However, in some patients with IIH, the ONSD was not altered or only slightly altered, e.g. a decline of 0.4 mm or more was only documented in five selleckchem individuals. This may possibly be related to findings of a defective CSF circulation in the optic nerve sheath in this disorder, a state that is referred to as optic nerve compartment syndrome [23]. The ROC curve analysis revealed an optimal

cut-off value for predicting raised ICP of 5.8 mm with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 84%. The mean optic disk elevation in subjects with IIH was 1.2 ± 0.3 mm. Nevertheless, one patient showed no evidence of optic disk elevation in transbulbar sonography but had signs of papilledema in funduscopy. Corresponding to previous studies, we found no decrease of the optic disk elevation after lumbar puncture in the observation period

of 24 h. As a result sonographic ONSD evaluation may be useful in detecting raised ICP in patients selleck compound with presumed IIH. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential usefulness of this technique for monitoring of treatment effects. In addition, ONSD values and optic disk levels were slightly asymmetric, reflecting the complex anatomy of the subarachnoidal space of the optic nerve and its possible influence on the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. For this reason we recommend that each eye should be evaluated separately and mean ONSD values should be designated for both eyes. Predominantly, the relationship of ONSD alterations and ICP changes was verified in clinical situations with raised ICP. One case series and one prospective study investigated the ONSD in spontaneous intracranial hypotension [24] and [25]. Aldol condensation Examining the orbit with T2-weighted MRI techniques, they observed a collapsed optic nerve sheath. Dubost et al. published an ultrasound study on ten patients with postdural puncture headache after lumbar puncture or epidural anesthesia [26]. Consistent with the mentioned MRI-results a small ONSD of 4.8 mm was detected before treatment. After successful therapy with a lumbar epidural blood patch a marked enlargement of the ONSD was found. Accordingly, in one patient in whom the intervention failed to resolve the headache they recorded no ONSD distension.

Second, the outcome of plant–plant interactions in plant communit

Second, the outcome of plant–plant interactions in plant communities – and especially the SGH – has been increasingly cited in recent years to be dependent on species-specific effects between facilitators LBH589 research buy and beneficiaries,

thus promoting niche differentiation (sensu Tilman, 1982) and resource use complementarity ( Liancourt et al., 2005, Callaway, 2007 and Gross et al., 2009; see Maestre et al., 2009 for a refined SGH taking into account these aspects). Accordingly, the fact that species architecture and species diversity may differ between TAE and extratropical environments also questions the global validity of plant–plant interaction models, which have been designed outside the alpine tropics. Herein, we review the ecological and environmental features of TAE in comparison with other alpine ecosystems. We then discuss the current state of knowledge on patterns and process of plant–plant interactions in TAE. We conclude by suggesting potential

avenues for future research on plant–plant interactions in TAE, including priority GKT137831 hypotheses to be tested, methodological approaches, and how current and future knowledge in this field may extend the conceptual framework of plant–plant interactions in alpine environments worldwide. Tropical alpine areas are defined as regions that are located above the natural high-altitude treeline, within 23°26′N and 23°26′S (Smith and Young, 1987, Körner, 2003 and Nagy and Grabherr, 2009). The lower altitudinal limit of TAE occurs between 3400 m and 3900 m a.s.l. although they may develop as low as 2000 m in various tropical buy Osimertinib islands, presumably because of a lack of tree species adapted to high altitude and/or a stronger aridity occurring in these types of TAE (Leuschner, 1996). The upper altitudinal limit commonly extends to between 4600 m and 5000 m a.s.l. (Smith and Young, 1987 and Luteyn, 1999). The term ‘tropical alpine’ encompasses a variety of regional terms

referring to such areas, including páramo, puna, afro-alpine, and zacatonal (see Smith and Young, 1987, for a detailed review on terms). The majority of TAE (probably more than 90% of the total area) are located in the Andes, between Venezuela and Chile–Argentina (Jacobsen, 2008). Further north, a relatively large area of dry TAE occurs in Mexico between 3000 m and 5000 m a.s.l. (Nagy and Grabherr, 2009). Residual páramo ecosystems also occur in Costa Rica (highest point: 3810 m) and Panama (3475 m; Luteyn, 1999). In Africa, most TAE are located in the eastern mountain ranges of the continent (White, 1983) but an isolated alpine zone has also been described on the volcanic Mount Cameroon (4095 m; Letouzey, 1985). New Guinea harbours the most extensive TAE in South-east Oceanic Asia (4884 m; Smith, 1994) with an area of approximately 700 km2 (Buytaert et al., 2011).

Eight-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sali

Eight-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: saline-control (C) and morphine-treated (M). Naive animals were housed in home cages made of Plexiglas (65 cm × 25 cm × 15 cm) find more with sawdust covering the floor. Animals

were maintained on a standard 12-h dark/light cycle (lights on between 0700 h and 1900 h) at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C). The animals had free access to food and water. At birth, the litters were standardized to contain up to 8 pups per dam, and the pups remained with their mothers until 21 days of age. Rats at P8 were chosen because it is accepted that animals of this age are at a similar stage of neurological development to that of a human newborn (Fitzgerald and Anand, 1993). It is also accepted

that they are in a physiologically immature state (Pattinson and Fitzgerald, 2004) since this period is characterized by major developmental changes in the brain and plasticity of the Fulvestrant cell line developing pain system (Bishop, 1982, Kim et al., 1996 and Rabinowicz et al., 1996). Animal handling and all experiments were performed in accordance with international guidelines for animal welfare. The protocol of this experimental study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution where the work was conducted. Each animal received saline (control group) or morphine (5 μg s.c. in the mid-scapular area; morphine group) starting at P8, then once a day for 7 days. This dose had been chosen based on a previous study by Rozisky et al., 2008 and Rozisky et al., 2010, and Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 it produced analgesia in all animals submitted to the tail-flick test. All treatments were administered at the same time each day (1100 h). One milliliter of morphine sulphate (Dimorf® 10 mg/ml, obtained from Cristália, Porto Alegre, Rio

Grande do Sul, Brazil) was diluted in 9 ml of 0.9% NaCl (saline). The formalin test was performed in 16-, 30-, and 60-day-old rats (Fig. 1). The number of animals used per group was 8 to 15. At the ages where we observed significant differences in the nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, the control and morphine groups were subdivided into four groups, each one designed to evaluate the effect of i.p. administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), applied 30 min before the formalin test: (1) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: 10 mg/kg of indomethacin (Indomethacin®, obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, São Paulo, Brazil) (Bastos et al., 2004) diluted in 1.29% sodium bicarbonate solution (control-indomethacin, morphine-indomethacin); (2) vehicle for indomethacin (vehicle I): 10 mg/kg of 1.29% sodium bicarbonate solution (pH = 7.4) (control-vehicle I, morphine-vehicle I); (3) NMDA receptor antagonist: 30 mg/kg of ketamine (Cetamine®, obtained from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil) (Campos et al., 2006) diluted in 0.

Não foi objetivo avaliar o esvaziamento gástrico ou velocidade de

Não foi objetivo avaliar o esvaziamento gástrico ou velocidade de trânsito colônico (fig. 5). Dos 40 animais iniciais, 34 chegaram ao final do experimento. Duas mortes, uma em cada grupo, foram causadas por falsa via na gavagem. Três animais

morreram apresentando insuficiência respiratória Linsitinib prévia, complicação frequente devido à ação da amônia resultante da decomposição dos excrementos, conforme relatado por Ribeiro40. Em apenas um animal não encontramos causa explicável para sua morte. A medição do tubo digestivo pela cintilografia mostrou que o marcador radioativo percorreu menos o trato gastrointestinal no grupo experimental (86,9 ± 12,6 cm) em relação ao grupo controle (93,1 ± 9,1 cm), não ocorrendo diferença significante (p = 0,1). Em nenhum dos

34 tubos digestivos submetidos à avaliação cintilográfica foi notada a presença do traçador no ceco. Outro detalhe que nos chamou atenção foi que em somente 6 animais do grupo experimental houve percurso de mais de 75% da extensão do tubo digestivo, contra 11 animais do grupo controle, no tempo de uma hora após a administração do marcador. Alguns autores, em experimentos com animais, mostraram a ação do tegaserode sobre a motilidade intestinal. Jin et al.27 observaram efeito propulsivo da droga em cólon de porcos‐da‐índia em doses menores que 1 μM, mas em concentrações maiores não relataram tal efeito. Nguyen et al.25 estudaram motilidade colônica de cães, em 2 dias de experimento, administrando Trametinib via endovenosa dosagens de 0,03, 0,1 e 0,3 mg/kg de tegaserode.

Encontraram pouca alteração no trânsito gástrico e do intestino delgado, mas perceberam aceleração no trânsito do intestino grosso após uma hora de administração. Também neste estudo relataram que a menor dose apresentou melhor efeito nas contrações colônicas pós‐prandiais. Nossos resultados apresentam algumas variações comparadas aos estudos anteriores. A administração do marcador radioativo foi realizada sem problemas, conforme discutido adiante, não tendo interferência direta no resultado. O nosso experimento Rebamipide teve duração maior do que os trabalhos citados. Podemos tentar justificar a falta de aceleração do trânsito por uma provável dessensibilização do receptor 5‐HT4, diminuindo a ação do tegaserode no intestino, embora Camilleri5 em revisão de literatura tenha citado um estudo onde mais de 300 pacientes chegaram a utilizar a medicação por mais de 330 dias, sem relato de tolerância à droga. A dose utilizada em nosso trabalho foi 0,03 mg/ml ou 0,09 mg/kg, portanto em concentração ideal para produzir os efeitos no trato gastrointestinal. Em síntese, no presente estudo não evidenciamos aceleração do trânsito intestinal uma hora após a administração do marcador por gavagem, na dose de 0,09 mg/kg.