Consistent with the predictions from both models, all the animals

Consistent with the predictions from both models, all the animals tested in our study were more likely to choose the same target again after winning than losing or tying in the previous trial (paired t test, p < 10−13, for all PCI-32765 nmr sessions in each animal; Figure 2A). Moreover, as predicted by the BL model but not by the simple RL model, when the animals lost or tied in a given trial, they were more likely to choose in the next trial what would have been the winning target than the other unchosen target (p < 10−7, for all

sessions in each animal; Figure 2B), indicating that the animal’s choices were also influenced by the hypothetical outcomes from unchosen actions. To quantify the cumulative effects of hypothetical outcomes on the animal’s choices, we estimated learning rates for the actual (αA) and hypothetical (αH) outcomes from chosen and unchosen actions separately using a hybrid learning model that combine the features of both RL and BL (see Experimental Procedures). For all three animals, the learning rates for hypothetical outcomes

were significantly greater than zero (two-tailed t test, p < 10−27, for all sessions in each animal), although they were significantly smaller than the learning rates for actual outcomes (paired t test, p < 10−48; see Table S1). According to the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), this hybrid learning model and BL model performed better than the RL model in more than 95% of the sessions for each animal. Therefore, animal’s behavior was influenced by hypothetical outcomes, albeit less strongly during than by actual outcomes. It should be noted that due to the competitive interaction with the computer opponent, the animals did not increase their reward rate by relying on such learning algorithms. In fact, for two monkeys (Q and S), average payoff decreased significantly as they were more strongly influenced by the actual outcomes from their previous choices (see Figure S2B and Supplemental Experimental Procedures). Average payoff was not significantly related to

the learning rates for hypothetical outcomes (Figure S2C). To test whether and how neurons in different regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate their activity according to the hypothetical outcomes from unchosen actions, we recorded the activity of 308 and 201 neurons in the DLPFC and OFC, respectively, during a computer-simulated rock-paper-scissors game. For each neuron, its activity during the 0.5 s feedback period was analyzed by applying a series of nested regression models that included the animal’s choice, actual payoff from the chosen target and hypothetical payoff from the unchosen winning target in a loss or tie trial as independent variables (see Experimental Procedures).

, 1819 Hall,

, 1819 Hall, 1916 in Dasyprocta agouti; Trichuris myocastoris Heidegger, 1931 Enigk, 1933 in Myocastor coypus; Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 in Ctenomys azarae and Ctenomys talarum; Trichuris bradleyi Babero, Cattan and Cabello, 1975 in Octodon degus; Trichuris robusti

Babero and Murua, 1990 in Ctenomys robustus; Trichuris bursacaudata Suriano and Navone, 1994 in C. talarum; Trichuris dolichotis Morini, Boero and Rodriguez, 1955 in Dolochotis patagonum; Trichuris fulvi Babero and Murua, 1987 in Ctenomys fulvus and one of Muridae: Trichuris muris Schrank, 1788 Hall, 1916 in Mus musculus ( Morini et al., 1955, Vicente et al., 1997, Rossin and Malizia, 2005 and Robles et al., 2006). It has a unique life-cycle strategy and the ability to inhabit an intra-tissue niche in the intestinal epithelial cells of mammalian hosts ( Tilney BTK signaling pathway inhibitor et al., 2005). The Pantanal and Atlantic Forest biomes have great biodiversity. The richness of the fauna and flora is still not fully understood. Because of the encroachment

of human activities in these ecosystems, there is a need for studies to promote their preservation and sustainable use of their natural resources ( Lopes Torres et al., 2007 and Lopes Torres et al., 2009). Species of the genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Caviomorpha) are present in several ecosystems in South America. Thrichomys apereoides occurs from North to Central part of Brazil, located in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes ( Bonvicino PD184352 (CI-1040) et al., 2002 and Braggio and Bonvicino, 2004). Studies

of T. apereoides in the wild have shown its involvement in the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi ( H.M. Herrera et al., 2005, L. Herrera et al., 2005 and Xavier et al., 2007) and have induced helminthological research ( Simões et al., 2009) in the Pantanal biome. In this area Thrichomys pachiurus is often infected with Trypanosoma evansi, responsible for causing severe diseases in horses and dogs ( L. Herrera et al., 2005 and Herrera et al., 2007). This paper reports the taxonomic and histological results of a new species found in T. apereoides in a transitional space between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil, where numerous nematode specimens collected were found to be new species. Morphological analysis by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed novel structural characteristics that in combination with the experimental infection showed new aspects of the infection process, leading to the identification of a new species. Ten T.

The treatment effect significantly favoured the exercise group at

The treatment effect significantly favoured the exercise group at 6, 12, and 18 weeks, with a difference of –8 units on the SPADI (95% CI –16 to –1) at 18 weeks. At 18 weeks a higher proportion of the exercise group improved by at least the smallest detectable selleck products amount (19.6 units) on the SPADI (NNT 4, 95% CI

2 to 12). At 18 weeks a higher proportion of the exercise group had returned to work (NNT 4, 95% CI 2 to 19). The groups did not differ significantly on the remaining secondary outcomes. Conclusion: A physiotherapy program emphasising supervised exercises was more effective than extracorporeal shockwave treatment in reducing pain and disability in patients with subacromial pain in the shoulder. [NNTs calculated by the CAP Editor.] This single blind randomised study suggests that supervised exercises combined with some manual therapy techniques for shoulder pain (Bohmer et al 1998, Baltaci 2003) are superior to extracorporeal shockwave treatment for decreasing shoulder pain and disability. There is recent evidence that extracorporeal shockwave treatment when compared to sham treatment can be effective in reducing pain and restoring function for patients

with calcific tendinitis with negligible complications (Hsu et al 2008). One possible limitation of the Engebretsen et al (2009) trial is that we do not know selleck chemicals what proportion of their participants had the diagnosis of calcific tendinitis; the participants who would be expected to be most responsive to shockwave therapy. However, the trial did include similar numbers of participants in both groups with symptoms of greater than 6 months, SB-3CT which has been associated with the development of calcific tendinitis (Green et al 1998). Although the authors emphasised the supervised exercise component of their intervention, the manual therapy component was not well described. There is other evidence supporting the combined use of manual therapy and exercise in the treatment of

shoulder impingement syndrome (Suronkok et al 2009, Senbursa et al 2007). Because patients need support on how to deal with pain and dysfunction in the early rehabilitation phase, scapular mobilisation is a useful manual therapy technique to apply to patients to gain an initial improvement in shoulder range of motion and function (Suronkok et al 2009). In a randomised clinical trial by Senbursa et al (2007), patients treated with manual physical therapy applied by experienced physical therapists combined with supervised exercise showed improvement including increasing strength, decreasing pain, and improving function compared to treatment with an exercise program alone. Based on the positive results of the Engebretsen trial and other recent literature, future research should attempt to discern the relative contributions of manual therapy and supervised exercises to improvements in patients presenting with shoulder pain.

, 2012) The representational-hierarchical theory emphasizes the

, 2012). The representational-hierarchical theory emphasizes the importance of the organization of representations in a hierarchical continuum throughout the ventral visual processing LY294002 in vivo stream (Cowell et al., 2010b). Under this view, anterior regions such as the PRC contain complex conjunctive representations (e.g., object ABC), whereas more posterior regions contain representations of lower-level features (e.g., features A, B, and C) (Figure 1). At the beginning of the High Ambiguity condition in experiment 3, individuals with PRC damage may have successfully used a single-feature strategy, supported by intact regions posterior to their damage

(by definition, the objects in the discrimination of ABC versus ABD contained a single unambiguous feature: C versus D). However, as the condition progressed, more and more perceptually similar features were processed and represented in these posterior regions. Over time (after

approximately 36 trials), irrelevant single features from previous trials created interference, and the single-feature strategy became less successful. Whereas individual object features were very similar from trial-to-trial, Crizotinib mouse the objects themselves were trial unique and could be uniquely represented by an intact PRC. The cases with MTL damage including PRC, however, lacked these unique conjunctive PRC representations to disambiguate the single features, and thus, impairments emerged relative to controls and relative to individuals with a damaged hippocampus but an intact PRC. Intermixing perceptually dissimilar objects rather than perceptually similar objects in experiment 4 minimized the degree of interference. When the same number of stimuli were interspersed as in

experiment 3—but the stimuli were perceptually dissimilar rather than perceptually similar—the MTL cases were no longer impaired. However, once consecutive trials involving perceptually similar stimuli were introduced, the deficit Bay 11-7085 re-emerged. Thus, we propose that the present findings, and related ones in the animal literature, are best explained in terms of a representational deficit, rather than an impairment in a given psychological process, be it memory or perception. Impoverished representations will lead to deficits in all of these processes, and thus, a representational account may provide a more parsimonious explanation for the deficits observed on a wide range of tasks—both mnemonic and perceptual. Interestingly, although cases with MTL damage including PRC were impaired, cases with selective hippocampal lesions performed normally on the present tasks. This suggests that the effect of interference is dependent on which MTL region is damaged and the specific stimuli that are used. Thus, although vulnerability to object-based perceptual interference may explain visual memory impairments in some cases of MTL amnesia, it is not a general mechanism underlying visual memory impairments in all cases.

8 × 106, was used) C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with tribromoe

8 × 106, was used). C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with tribromoethanol (125–250 mg/kg). Viral solution was injected with a glass pipette at a flow rate of 0.15 μl/min. Coordinates used for the hippocampal injection were AP + 1.95 mm,

ML ± 1.25 mm, DV − 1.20 mm (for CA1), and DV − 1.95 mm (for DG). We injected 1 μl of viral solution in CA1 and another 1 μl in DG. The coordinates used for the prefrontal injection were AP − 1.0 mm, ML ± 0.3 mm, DV − 1.0 mm, and DV − 1.5 mm. The sites at DV − 1.0 mm and DV − 1.5 mm both received 1 μl of injection. The coordinates used for the entorhinal injection were AP + 4.5 mm, ML ± 3.5 mm, and DV − 4.0 mm. The injections were bilateral except otherwise noted. Two-month-old C57BL/6 mice were injected with AAVs and were used for slice physiology 3–4 weeks after the infection. Transverse hippocampal slices or coronal prefrontal slices (250 μm) were cut in ice-cold solution, comprising

75 mM sucrose, 75 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 8 mM MgSO4, 0.5 mM CaCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, and 20 mM D-glucose saturated with 95% O2/ 5% CO2 and transferred to a holding chamber containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) composed of 117.5 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 1.3 mM MgSO4, 2.5 mM CaCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, and 11 mM D-glucose to recover for at least 1 hr at room temperature Decitabine before being transferred to a recording chamber continually perfused (1 ml/min) with oxygenated ACSF (maintained at 27°C–29°C), containing 50 μM of picrotoxin. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made with 3–5 these MΩ pipettes filled with internal solution containing 135 mM CsMeSO4, 10 mM HEPES, 8 mM NaCl, 0.25 mM EGTA, 2 mM MgCl2, 4 mM Mg ATP, 0.3 mM NaGTP, and 5 mM phosphocreatine (pH 7.3). Neurons were clamped at −65mV for recording of EPSC in hippocampal slices. In the prefrontal slices, to avoid contamination from AMPAR-mediated polysynaptic EPSCs, we

clamped neurons at +30mV to record NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in the presence of 10 μM of NBQX. Two-month-old mice were injected with AAVs and were implanted with recording electrodes 2–3 weeks later. Field potential recordings were obtained from the CA1 field of the right dorsal hippocampus. To implant electrodes, we sedated mice with diazepam (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), anesthetized them with isoflurane (1%–3%), placed them in a stereotaxic frame, maintained on a heating pad, and prepared them for aseptic surgery. A hole was drilled 2.2 mm posterior and 1.6 mm right of bregma. An insulated, 50 μm diameter stainless steel wire (California Fine Wire) was implanted 1.7 mm below the surface of the brain. The reference electrode was placed in the cerebellum. Two screws were placed in the skull. Electrode leads were connected to pins that were inserted into a strip connector, which was attached to the screws and skull with cranioplastic cement.

Together, these results suggest that PHF6 knockdown specifically

Together, these results suggest that PHF6 knockdown specifically impairs the radial migration of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. To determine whether the PHF6 RNAi-induced migration phenotype see more is due to specific knockdown of PHF6, we performed a rescue experiment. Expression of rat PHF6 (PHF6-Res), which contains two mismatches with shRNA-2 targeting mouse PHF6, was refractory to PHF6 RNAi (Figure 1F). Importantly, expression of PHF6-Res in PHF6 knockdown animals largely restored the normal migration pattern of cortical neurons (Figures 1G and 1H). These data indicate that the PHF6 RNAi-induced migration phenotype is

the result of specific knockdown of PHF6. We next asked whether the PHF6 knockdown-induced migration phenotype is relevant to intellectual disability. The patient mutation C99F targets a conserved cysteine residue in PHF6’s first PHD domain (Lower et al., 2002) and impaired the SCH727965 ability of PHF6-Res to drive migration in the cerebral cortex in vivo in the background of PHF6 RNAi (Figures 1G and 1H). Likewise, deletion

of the C-terminal 86 amino acids, which also causes BFLS (Berland et al., 2011), impaired PHF6-dependent neuronal migration (Figures 1G and 1H). These data suggest that impaired neuronal migration might underlie the pathogenesis of BFLS. Having established a critical role of PHF6 in neuronal migration, we next asked how PHF6 functions in neurons at the cellular level. Radial neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex results from major cell morphological rearrangements, including the transition from multipolar to bipolar neuronal morphology in the intermediate zone and extension of the leading process toward the pia (Ayala et al., 2007; Kriegstein and Noctor, 2004; Nadarajah et al., 2001). Knockdown of PHF6 substantially increased the number of multipolar neurons and concomitantly reduced the number of bipolar neurons in the intermediate zone in the cerebral cortex in E17 embryos (Figures 2A, 2B, and 2D). The remaining bipolar neurons in the PHF6 knockdown embryos harbored

a thick leading process with below numerous filopodia-like protrusions (Figure 2C). In other analyses, PHF6 knockdown dramatically increased the percentage of migrating neurons that lacked a leading process or that had a short, poorly developed, or aberrantly branched leading process (Figures 2E and 2F). These data suggest that PHF6 plays a critical role in the multipolar-to-bipolar transition and the morphogenesis of the leading process in migrating neurons. We next determined the mechanism by which PHF6 orchestrates neuronal migration. Immunocytochemical analyses suggested that PHF6 protein localized to the nucleoplasm in primary cortical neurons, consistent with the possibility that PHF6 might regulate transcription (Figure S1G) (Lower et al., 2002).

12 Though only approximately 50 published approach-avoidance

12 Though only approximately 50 published approach-avoidance

studies in sport and exercise psychology were reported by Stevenson,10 a number of approach-avoidance articles have appeared in the sport and exercise psychology literature since her review such that in a variety of contexts with a wide array of antecedents and consequences surrounding Elliot’s approach-avoidance goals.13, 14, 15 and 16 One specific area that has gained attention within the approach-avoidance achievement goal selleck kinase inhibitor literature is the relationship of Elliot and colleagues’ approach-avoidance goals to performance of tasks that were clearly presented as an outcome of importance and performed in front of others (i.e., the researchers or within a group setting) in sport and physical education contexts.3, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32 Given the different types of measures combined with different settings (e.g., true golf score17 and 27 to laboratory golf putting22) to the vast array of study participants (e.g., university students22, 25 and 26 to elite athletes17, 20 and 31), no one consensus statement of the relationship exists between the approach-avoidance ZD1839 purchase achievement goals exits. Thus, the purpose of the present quantitative investigation was to summarize the approach-avoidance achievement goal and performance literature within normally considered psychology of sport

and PA settings. Based on the results, a secondary purpose was to provide recommendations for future research. Stemming from the dichotomous achievement goal framework4 there are two orientations by which achievement motivation is influenced, task and ego, and thereby how personal competency is judged. Individuals endorsing a task or mastery orientation are primarily motivated by personal mastery or improvement. Thus, these individuals reflect a self-referenced standard of personal achievement to gauge their personal competency for a desired behavior.

Conversely, an ego oriented person strives to win and is motivated to attain high normative standards of ability. Ego-oriented individuals judge success and failure on other-referenced standards and are motivationally “fragile” when they doubt Levetiracetam their own competence.33 While the dichotomous task and ego distinction relates to how competence is defined, the approach-avoidance dimension relates to how competence is valenced. This approach-avoidance dimension is the contribution of Elliot and colleagues.7 and 8 An approach valence indicates a behavior that is initiated by a positive or desirable event or possibility. In contrast, an avoidance valence indicates a behavior which is initiated by a negative or undesirable event or possibility.7 and 8 Thus, approach goals focus on attaining competence, whereas avoidance goals focus on avoiding incompetence.

We sought to investigate the types of bipolar cells and amacrine

We sought to investigate the types of bipolar cells and amacrine cells that are connected to ON DS cells. We injected the retrograde tracer AAVs or herpes viruses expressing TVA receptor and rabies-G protein into the medial terminal nucleus. As a result, ON DS cells expressed the TVA receptor and the rabies-G protein (Figure 2A). We then injected GCaMP3-expressing, EnvA-coated G-deleted rabies viruses into the eye. Since EnvA specifically binds to TVA, rabies virus infected only ON DS cells. Due to the presence see more of rabies-G expressed from AAV/herpes viruses in ON DS cells, the G-deleted

rabies viruses were complemented with rabies-G and crossed one synapse retrogradely to mark the monosynaptically connected cells (Wickersham et al., 2007b and Yonehara et al., 2011) (Figure 2A). The transsynaptic spread of rabies virus has been observed to be specific to synaptically connected neurons and not to adjoining neurons that are either not connected or gap-junction connected (Ugolini, 2011). Injection of EnvA-coated rabies virus into the eye without supplying the TVA receptor did not result buy INCB024360 in any labeling of retinal cells in 15 independent eye injections (Figure S2). Immunohistochemistry, together with three-dimensional (3D) confocal image reconstruction, showed that bipolar and amacrine cells were labeled together with ON DS cells. Most of the labeled amacrine cells were ChAT-positive

starburst amacrine cells located Thymidine kinase in the ganglion cell layer (Figure 2B), confirming previous results that starburst cells are presynaptic to ON DS cells (Yonehara et al., 2011). Based on the confocal image stacks, we identified a morphological type of bipolar cell as presynaptic to ON DS cells. The axon terminals of all (21/21)

bipolar cells were positioned slightly above the proximal ChAT-labeled layer and were therefore categorized as type-5 bipolar cells (Ghosh et al., 2004) (Figures 2C, 2D, and S2). We did not find any labeled type-6 or type-7 bipolar cells, even though the axon terminals of these bipolar cells are physically close to the dendrites of ON DS cells at the proximal ChAT-labeled layer (Ghosh et al., 2004) and have therefore had opportunities to contact ON DS cell dendrites. We used the same combination of rabies and AAV/herpes viruses that we had used for circuit labeling to record calcium responses via GCaMP3 from the axon terminals of labeled bipolar cells. We stimulated retinas with a positive contrast spot moving in eight different directions. We first imaged the cell body of an ON DS cell and made sure that it was direction selective. Next, we imaged calcium responses in the axon terminal endings of connected bipolar cells. Each axon terminal button of a connected bipolar cell was visible under the two-photon microscope (Figure 3A). Based on their appearance (large buttons), we could differentiate them from ON DS dendrites and starburst processes.

By exclusion, our data suggest a reduction in the total number of

By exclusion, our data suggest a reduction in the total number of functional inhibitory synapses. Our previous observations of reduced inhibition were made in Ube3am−/p+ mice on the 129Sv/Ev strain, which are susceptible to spontaneous seizures ( Jiang et al., 1998), making it difficult to determine whether

the synaptic abnormalities were a cause or result of seizures ( Sloviter, 1987). To address this concern, we tested for possible synaptic deficits in Ube3am−/p+ mice maintained on the C57BL/6J strain, which have a low incidence of evoked seizures and INCB024360 mw no reported spontaneous seizures ( Jiang et al., 1998). We performed mIPSC recordings at P80 in WT and Ube3am−/p+ C57BL/6J mice to test if synaptic defects arose in the absence of spontaneous seizures. As before, we observed no genotypic differences in the amplitude of mIPSCs, but a large decrease in mIPSC frequency in Ube3am−/p+ mice ( Figure 2A). We also performed mEPSC recordings in L2/3 pyramidal neurons in mice on the C57BL/6J

strain to confirm previous results from the 129Sv/Ev strain ( Yashiro et al., 2009). Consistent with previous results, there was a significant decrease in mEPSC frequency, but not amplitude, between Ube3am−/p+ and WT mice ( Figure 2B). These observations reveal that Ube3am−/p+ L2/3 pyramidal neurons have a 50% reduction in spontaneous inhibitory synaptic Akt inhibitor activity, medroxyprogesterone but only a 28% decrease in excitatory synaptic activity. Additionally, intrinsic excitability of L2/3 pyramidal neurons was increased in Ube3am−/p+ mice compared to

WT ( Figure S1C). Together these data suggest that a disproportionate loss of inhibition may lead to an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in Ube3am−/p+ L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Ube3a is expressed by both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex (Sato and Stryker, 2010). Therefore, Ube3a loss might be expected to affect both neuron classes. To assess this possibility, we recorded spontaneous synaptic activity in fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons, which we identified by membrane properties, aspinous dendrites, and characteristic high firing rates (Okaty et al., 2009). FS inhibitory interneurons in L2/3 were targeted for whole-cell recording at P80, an age at which excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons is altered. In contrast to L2/3 pyramidal neurons, the loss of Ube3a did not affect either the amplitude or the frequency of mIPSCs onto FS inhibitory interneurons (Figure 2C). Moreover, excitatory connections onto FS inhibitory interneurons appeared normal, as Ube3a loss did not alter mEPSC amplitude or frequency (Figure 2D).

This observation was supported by a significant interaction betwe

This observation was supported by a significant interaction between Session and Strain (p < 0.01), and no main effect of Strain was detected (p = 0.346). Spatial retention was also tested 1 week after the last session in a single probe trial (session

10). All the Talazoparib concentration mice retained the previously learned information well. In comparing genotypes within the SedCon groups, there was no effect of Strain (p = 0.97) on the performance of the mice. There was no difference between the performance of the E3 and E4 mice and no effect of Treatment (all p > 0.221). The mice were also tested on a visible platform test to determine whether their vision may have affected their performance in the MWM. A composite measure, learning index, was calculated by averaging the path length taken by the mice to the flagged platform during sessions 2, 3, and 4 (Fig. 3). There was no

discernable effect of Strain or Treatment on the performance of the mice, which was supported by a lack of main effect or interaction between Strain and Treatment (all p > 0.164). Swimming speed on sessions 2, 3, and 4 was also averaged and considered for analysis. The speed of the SedCon E4 mice was 25% faster than the SedCon E3 ones, and there was no effect of the Treatment on the speed of the E3 or E4 mice. These observations were supported by a significant main effect of Strain (p < 0.05) and a lack KU-55933 concentration of main effect of Treatment or an interaction (all p > 0.386). There were no differences in performance between the wild-type, E3, and E4 mice when analyzing the learning index (p = 0.989).

The speed of the wild-type was comparable to the one of the E4 mice, which was significantly higher than the swimming speed of the E3 mice. This was supported by a significant effect of Strain (p < 0.05) following a one-way ANOVA. Components of the discriminated avoidance learning were considered for effects of Strain and Treatment during the acquisition and reversal sessions. Learning of the preemptive response is shown in Fig. 4, whereas the discriminative component is shown in Fig. 5. During acquisition, the SedCon E4 mice took 13% more trials than their E3 counterparts. The ExCon and Adenylyl cyclase ExEC E3 mice took 27% and 22.5% less trials to reach the avoidance criterion compared to the SedCon E3 mice. Number of trials taken to make a correct avoidance response was reduced by 18%–20% in the SedEC, ExCon, and ExEC E4 mice in comparison to their genotype-matched control (SedCon). Analysis of the trials to avoidance criterion for session 1 yielded a significant main effects of Strain and Treatment (all p < 0.021) but no interaction of Strain and Treatment (p = 0.63). In the reversal session, there was no difference between the SedCon E3 and SedCon E4.