41 CRP levels were found to be predictive for long-term treatment response both as a predictor of relapse after cessation of azathioprine treatment42 and for maintenance of response in infliximab-treated patients.43,44 However, not all patients respond equally with elevated
CRP to inflammation. For example, in one study it was demonstrated that the 717 mutant homozygote and heterozygote status in the CRP-encoding gene was associated with lower CRP levels,43 and in another study up to 30% of patients with active inflammation did not have elevated CRP levels.45 Fecal calprotectin is another marker of intestinal inflammation that is increasingly used in clinical practice. It was shown to #Fulvestrant keyword# correlate with intestinal inflammation46 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and to predict clinical relapse,47 although it was shown to be less useful for ileal CD.48
In a recent meta-analysis of 672 patients (of whom 354 had CD) fecal calprotectin was 78% sensitive and 73% specific, with ROC of 0.83, in predicting relapse in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).49 Thus, inflammatory surrogate markers can assist in determining the presence of active inflammation, long-term risk of surgery, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and risk of relapse. However, more studies are needed to substantiate these observations, and the ability to rely on these markers is not inclusive of all patients. Serology: A number of studies have demonstrated that CD patients develop antibodies against various microbial antigens. Studies have demonstrated patterns of antibody responses to be associated with specific CD patient characteristics. Thus, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in one study, anti-CBir1 antibodies (against Escherichia coli flagellin) were associated with fibrostenosis, internal penetrating disease, small bowel involvement, and surgery. Interestingly, a possible link to genetic predisposition was suggested by the demonstration that titers of anti-CBir1 were significantly higher in patients with CD carrying at least one NOD2 variant as compared to those carrying no variant.50 In an additional study the investigators tested the association of three microbial-related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antibodies next with
clinical patient characteristics. They demonstrated that patients expressing anti-Pseudomonas bacterial component (I2) antibodies were more likely to have fibrostenosing disease and to undergo small bowel surgery, and that patients with anti-Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C (OmpC) were more likely to have internal perforating disease and also underwent more small bowel surgery. Patients positive for I2, OmpC, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were the most likely to need small bowel surgery (72.0%; odds ratio 8.6; P< 0.001) compared with patients without such reactivity (23.0%).51 The association of anti-microbial antibodies with disease phenotypes was further extended and was shown to predict disease behavior.