When D-lactate was replaced as substrate, the enzyme did not significantly act with D-malate, L-malate, D-tartrate and L-tartrate, but some oxidation of L-lactate and DL-2-hydroxybutyrate was observed ( < 5% of the activity observed for D-lactate). The comparison of the absorption spectra of the purified protein from C. glutamicum
with those Angiogenesis inhibitor of the NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides revealed that the absorption maxima at 375 nm and 445 nm were observed only for the protein from C. glutamicum. These spectral features agree well with those for FAD. Moreover, the primary structure of the D-lactate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum contains a domain (aa 50-187) similar to the FAD binding domain 4 found in the members of the protein family pfam01565. These GF120918 mw results suggest that D-lactate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum contains FAD as a bound cofactor. Taken together, it is concluded that cg1027 encodes
quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from C. glutamicum and, thus, was named dld. Dld is required for utilization of D-lactate In order to determine the role of quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld for growth of C. glutamicum on D-lactate and racemic DL-lactate, a defined dld disruption mutant and dld overexpression plasmids for complementation were constructed. The constructed strains were assayed for Dld activity in crude extracts obtained after GDC-0449 in vitro growth in LB medium containing kanamycin and IPTG when appropriate. Crude extracts Ibrutinib purchase of C. glutamicum WT and WT(pEKEx3) contained about 0.10 U mg-1 Dld activity (Figure 1), while no Dld activity was detectable in C. glutamicum ::dld (pEKEx3). Overexpression of dld resulted in about three fold higher Dld activity in WT(pEKEx3-dld)
than in the empty vector control. Growth experiments with C. glutamicum strains WT(pEKEx3), WT(pEKEx3-dld), ::dld(pEKEx3), and ::dld(pEKEx3-dld) in CgXII mineral medium containing 100 mM D-lactate and 1 mM IPTG revealed that dld is required for growth of C. glutamicum on D-lactate as sole carbon and energy source as only strains with intact dld either on the chromosome or on plasmid could grow (Figure 1). Figure 1 Specific activities of the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (A) and growth (B) of various C. glutamicum strains. Specific Dld activities (A) were determined after growth in LB complex medium containing 1 mM IPTG. The values represent means and standard deviations of at least three independent cultivations. Growth (B) of C. glutamicum WT(pEKEx3) (diamonds), WT(pEKEx3-dld) (circles), ::dld(pEKEx3) (squares), and ::dld(pEKEx3-dld) (triangles) in CgXII mineral medium containing 100 mM D-lactate and 1 mM IPTG was monitored as OD600nm (open symbols). The concentration of D-lactate in the supernatant was measured by HPLC (closed symbols). Averages and experimental errors from at least three independent growth experiments are shown.