Their degree of physical anhedonia,63 CH5424802 supplier social anhedonia,63 and overall anhedonia64 is similar to depressed subjects. Only a few studies were performed in patients off antipsychotic medications. In the first, study,65 the schizophrenia group scored high on the high infrequent item scale, questioning the validity of the answers given by these IWSs. In the second study,66 IWSs were compared with nonschizophrenic unmedicated inpatients. When unmedicated, IWSs showed a higher PAS and similar SAS score. After an average of 2 months of treatment, the SAS score increased in the schizophrenia group, while decreasing in the psychiatric control group, and the PAS score did not, change. However, in this study,
no correlations between the SAS score, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the PAS score, and the dosage of antipsychotic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medications were found. Several studies have focused on the status of anhedonia in schizophrenia: is it, a negative symptom, a deficit symptom, a depressive symptom, or does it constitute a different, dimension in psychopathology? Most studies15,67-71 that used correlation analyses or factor analyses were negative, and these results warn against, a rapid
assimilation of anhedonia as a negative or a depressive symptom. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Anhedonia seems higher in deficit schizophrenia. However, these results are not, surprising as decreased emotional range, curbing of interests, and diminished social drive are part, of the definition of deficit, schizophrenia, and consequently have some similarities in their conceptual construct. Evocative tests Mood induction tests have the advantage
of directly controlling more or less the emotional stimuli, and consequently they allow for more direct comparison in affect reactivity between groups. The validity of subjective reports in schizophrenia has been questioned; however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most, researchers now consider that IWSs can report, their subjective experiences in a valid manner. The emotional stimuli have been quite varied: orchestral or synthetic music, photographs of facial expressions, slides from the International Affective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Picture System (IAPS),72 video clips of movies or scenes played by actors, cartoons, odors, drinks of different tastes, words, verbal commands, reexperiencing of past, situations, and social role play. Most studies found that IWSs reported the same degree of positive emotions during all check kinds of tests (25 studies). Three studies73-75 reported a higher degree of pleasantness, and eight, studies reported lower positive feelings. For negative affect, many studies found similar degree of emotional experience between schizophrenia groups and NCS groups (21 studies). In three studies,11,76,77 IWSs reported feeling more negative emotions while watching unpleasant films, one study found lower unpleasantness ratings in schizophrenia, and one study reported mixed results. When subjects had to rate the degree of induced emotional arousal, IWSs rated the same degree of arousal or intensity than NCS (nine studies).