HCs were matched with patients on average IQ (within
15 points, 1 SD), age (birth date within 24 months), gender, and handedness. Handedness scores were measured by administering the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield 1971). Participants with ASD were diagnosed with autism or Asperger’s syndrome by psychiatric interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). These diagnoses were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R; Lord et al. 1994) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G; Lord et al. 2000), except Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for one participant for whom ADI-R was unavailable. Table 1 Demographic data (means ± SD) of ASD and HC groups Exclusion criteria included epilepsy, history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other Axis I mental disorders, except attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or obsessive-compulsive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder (given the phenotypic overlap with ASD), and use of depot neuroleptic medication or other psychoactive drugs within the past 5 weeks. We also excluded potential participants with a lifetime history of substance/alcohol dependence and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or substance/alcohol abuse within the last year. Additional exclusion criteria included history of encephalitis,
phenylketonuria, tuberous sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, anoxia during birth, neurofibromatosis, hypomelanosis of Ito, hypothyroidism, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and maternal rubella. Potential HCs were excluded based on medical illness or history in first-degree relatives of developmental disorders, learning disabilities, autism, affective disorders, and anxiety disorders. Two ASD participants and two HC participants were excluded from the final sample due to indications from a neuroradiologist report of abnormal brain structure,
low (chance-level) accuracy, motion greater than one voxel size, or technical issues resulting in the absence of behavioral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data, with one participant in each of these categories. The final sample for this report included 12 ASD (eight with autism and four with Asperger’s syndrome) and 12 HC participants. All participants provided written informed consent, approved by the MSSM Institutional Review Board. The Attention Network Test – Revised The ANT-R is a revision of the Methisazone original ANT (Fan et al. 2002) aimed at optimizing attentional contrasts, as described in our previous JAK inhibitor publication (Fan et al. 2009). A minor difference between the task used in the current fMRI study and our previous behavioral study (Fan et al. 2009) is that asterisks, instead of flashing boxes, were used in the cue conditions (see Fig. 1). The participants’ task was to respond to the direction that the center arrow (target) was pointing (either left or right) using the left index finger for the left direction and the right index finger for the right direction.