The two randomized clinical trials reported non-significant differences between groups on all study variables,36 and 37 while the quasi-experimental, cross-over and cross-sectional studies reported that those in Tai Ji Quan had improved aerobic endurance/exercise capacity, balance, strength, flexibility, mood, social support, exercise self-efficacy, lipid profile and glucose metabolism, and lowered blood pressure, body weight and Vorinostat stress (p < 0.05, includes within and between group differences). 32, 33, 34, 35, 38 and 39 Numerous studies conducted during
the past 5 decades have clearly established the benefits of regular exercise for adult men and women with CVD and CVD risk factors.3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 Despite the popularity of Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality among older adults, little research has been conducted in the past decade on the potential benefits of Tai Ji Quan exercise to prevent and manage CVD.16, 40 and 41 Since the phenotype and treatment goals for coronary artery disease, chronic heart
failure, stroke, and CVD risk factors are different, the extant Tai Ji Quan research literature involves a variety of study variables, making comparisons across studies difficult. The effect of Tai Ji Quan on aerobic PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor 2 endurance/exercise capacity or QoL was most frequently examined (40% of studies). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Only
55% of the studies in this review were randomized clinical trials (RCTs). However, all of the studies (n = 9) conducted among persons with chronic heart failure and stroke survivors were RCTs, while the other two randomized clinical trials because reviewed focused on those with CVD risk factors. Although coronary artery disease is more prevalent than chronic heart failure or stroke, no randomized clinical trials involving Tai Ji Quan in this population were found. 2 In addition, the majority of studies in this review were likely underpowered to detect statistically significant and/or clinically meaningful differences over time between groups as only 20% of these studies enrolled ≥100 participants. Finally, the Tai Ji Quan exercise dose (i.e., frequency, intensity, time, and type) varied greatly among these studies, and likely affected the reported study outcomes, further limiting generalizability of the reported results. Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. No serious adverse findings were reported, even among these higher risk participants with CVD. It is readily apparent that further research examining the effects of Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD is needed.