Furthermore, we find that the axonal boutons

of these int

Furthermore, we find that the axonal boutons

of these interneurons also show a baseline RG7420 concentration level of turnover. Following removal of sensory input by focal retinal lesions, we observed a rapid loss of both dendritic spines and axonal boutons of inhibitory neurons. This effect is not spatially limited to the silenced cortical region, but gradually decreases with increasing distance from the border of the LPZ, and appears to be driven to a large degree, by reduced cortical activity levels. Because the changes in inhibitory structures precede increases in excitatory spine turnover (Keck et al., 2008), these data suggest that inhibitory structural plasticity may be the first step in cortical reorganization after sensory

deprivation. Most studies of synaptic structural plasticity in vivo thus far have focused on excitatory synapses, particularly postsynaptic dendritic spines. Here, we report that a subset of inhibitory neurons (mostly NPY positive cells) in adult mouse visual cortex bears dendritic spines. We have observed these spines under very different experimental conditions: in fixed tissue sections, in vivo and in acute cortical brain slices. Many, if not all, Paclitaxel mw of these spines carry functional excitatory synapses, as revealed by immunohistochemistry and their response to glutamate uncaging. As has been observed for excitatory cells (Hofer et al., 2009, Holtmaat et al., 2006, Keck et al., 2008, Majewska et al., 2006, Trachtenberg et al., 2002 and Zuo et al., 2005), inhibitory cell spines demonstrate a baseline level of turnover in naive adult animals over a period of days. Following sensory deprivation, changes to excitatory cell spines occur on the time scale of days (Hofer et al., 2009, Holtmaat et al., 2006, Keck et al., 2008, Trachtenberg et al., 2002 and Zuo et al., 2005), typically in the form of increased dynamics, lasting for weeks to months. Here, we observe that spines on inhibitory neurons

change much more rapidly—in the first 6 hr after deprivation—mainly via increased Bay 11-7085 spine loss resulting in a decrease in spine density. This increase in dynamics occurs through the first 72 hr after deprivation, but not afterward, suggesting that inhibitory cell spine plasticity ends well before changes in excitatory spines subside. Axonal boutons in the naive cortex have been reported to demonstrate a baseline turnover in excitatory cells, the rate of which depends largely on cell type (De Paola et al., 2006 and Stettler et al., 2006). Previous studies using chronic two-photon imaging of PV positive inhibitory neurons (Kuhlman and Huang, 2008), GABA positive inhibitory neurons (Chen et al., 2011) or GAD65 positive inhibitory neurons (Marik et al., 2010) demonstrated a baseline turnover of axonal boutons in adult cortex.

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