The only significant gene ontologies represented among the 46 rem

The only significant gene ontologies represented among the 46 remaining features after filtering relate to host exported proteins from multi-gene families.

Conclusions: The malaria parasite’s molecular responses to PN and CQ treatment are similar in terms of the genes and pathways affected. However, PN appears to exert a more rapid response than CQ. The faster action of PN may explain why PN is more efficacious than CQ, particularly against CQ resistant isolates. In agreement with several other microarray studies of drug action on the parasite, it is not possible, however, to discern mechanism of drug action from the

drug-responsive genes.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of rufinamide for treatment of epileptic learn more spasms.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated with rufinamide for epileptic spasms from January 2009 to March 2010. Age, presence of hypsarrhythmia, change in seizure PCI-34051 chemical structure frequency following rufinamide initiation, and side effects were assessed. Patients

who had a >= 50% reduction in spasm frequency were considered responders.

Results: Of all 107 children treated with rufinamide during the study period, 38 (36%) had epileptic spasms. Median patient age was 7 years (range: 17 months to 23). One patient had hypsarrhythmia at the time of treatment with rufinamide, and 9 other patients had a history of hypsarrhythmia. Median starting dose of rufinamide was 9 mg/kg/day (range: 2-18) and median final treatment dose was 39 mg/kg/day (range: 8-92). All patients were receiving concurrent antiepileptic drug therapy, with the median number of antiepileptic

Selleckchem Pexidartinib drugs being 3 (range: 2-6). Median duration of follow-up since starting rufinamide was 171 days (range: 10-408). Responder rate was 53%. Median reduction in spasm frequency was 50% (interquartile range = -56 to 85%. P<0.05). Two patients (5%) achieved a >99% reduction in spasms. Rufinamide was discontinued in 7 of 38 patients (18%) because of lack of efficacy, worsening seizures, or other side effects. Minor side effects were reported in 14 of 38 patients (37%).

Conclusions: Rufinamide appears to be a well-tolerated and efficacious adjunctive therapeutic option for children with epileptic spasms. A prospective study is warranted to validate our observations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings in Germany were temporally, spatially, and phylogenetically linked to outbreaks in wild aquatic birds.

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