Since telomerase is expressed in malignant cells of CTCL, GV1001

Since telomerase is expressed in malignant cells of CTCL, GV1001 vaccination in CTCL is a promising new therapeutic approach. Objective: We sought to investigate the efficacy of GV1001 vaccination in CTCL patients and DAPT nmr characterize the induced immune response.

Methods: Six CTCL patients were vaccinated with the

GV-peptide using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvant. Objective clinical response and the T cell response were assessed.

Results: None of the patients demonstrated objective clinical response to the vaccination whereas one patient showed disease progression. 1/6 patients acquired a GV1001-specifc T cell response with a Th1 cytokine profile and expression of skin-homing receptors. This hTERT-specific T cell response was not associated with beneficial modulation of the tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Furthermore, removal of

regulatory T cells did not enhance responsiveness to GV1001 in vitro in any of the patients analyzed.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the GV1001 vaccination is not effective in CTCL patients and disease progression in 1/6 patients raises concerns about its safety. By analyzing skin-homing properties of GV1001-specific T cells and the involvement of regulatory T cells we nevertheless provide insight into vaccine-induced immune responses which may help to improve vaccine strategies in CTCL. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for Investigative selleck screening library Dermatology.”
“Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) offers a promising treatment for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients for whom a rhythm control strategy is desired. While the precise mechanisms of AF are incompletely understood, there is substantial evidence that in many cases (particularly for paroxysmal AF), ectopic activity most commonly located in and around the pulmonary veins of the left atrium plays a central role in triggering and/or maintaining arrhythmic episodes. Catheter ablation involves electrically disconnecting the pulmonary veins from the rest of the left atrium to prevent AF from

being triggered. Further substrate modification may be required in patients with more persistent AF. Successful ablation of AF has never been shown to alter mortality or obviate the need for oral anticoagulation; thus, the primary indication for this procedure should be improvement of symptoms caused by AF. The success rate of catheter ablation for AF is superior to the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs, but success is still in the range of 75%-90% after 2 procedures. Ablation is also associated with a complication rate of 2%-3%. Thus, ablation should primarily be used as a second-line therapy after failure of antiarrhythmic drugs. In contrast to AF, catheter ablation of atrial flutter has a higher success rate with a smaller incidence of complications. Thus, catheter ablation for atrial flutter may be considered a first-line alternative to antiarrhythmic drugs.

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