ity of eIF5A1 in animal models of lung cancer, melanoma, and multiple myeloma. Apoptosis induced by an accumulation of non hypusine modified eIF5A1 has been correlated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases as well as up regulation of p53. However, eIF5A1 also http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Imatinib(STI571).html induces apoptosis in p53 negative cell lines, suggesting activation of p53 independent apoptotic pathways. Suppression of eIF5A1 e pression using RNA interference reduces acti vation of mitogen activated protein kinases and can protect cells from apoptosis induced by cytoto ic drugs and cytokines. MAPKs are serine threonine protein kinases that par ticipate in intracellular signaling during proliferation, differentiation, cellular stress responses, and apoptosis.
Activation of MAPKs, including e tracelluar signal regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 MAPK, and the stress activated protein kinase c Jun NH2 terminal kinase, has been Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries implicated in the activity of numerous chemotherapy and genoto ic drugs. MAPK can regulate apoptosis through specific phosphorylation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of downstream mediators Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of apoptosis, including the tumor suppressor p53, thus linking cellular stress signaling and regulation of p53 activity. Phosphorylation of p53 can regulate p53 activity by altering protein stability, interaction with co activators, and transcrip tion of target genes as part of the cellular response to stress. Despite numerous studies documenting the anti tumoral activity of eIF5A1 in a wide variety of cancer cell types, there is limited Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries knowledge about the mecha nisms by which eIF5A1 modulates apoptosis.
In the present study, adenovirus mediated over e pression of eIF5A1 or eIF5A1K50A were found to activate ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK coincident with the induction of apop tosis and phosphorylation of p53 tumor Anacetrapib suppressor in A549 lung cancer cells. Inhibitors of p38 and JNK at tenuated apoptosis by eIF5A1, suggesting that activation of MAPK SAPK pathways is an important feature of eIF5A1 induced cell death. Ad eIF5A1 also induced MEK dependent phosphorylation and accumulation of p53. However, activity of p53 was not required for eIF5A1 induced apoptosis, indicating that alternative pathways are involved. Normal lung fibroblasts were found to be less sensitive to eIF5A1 induced apoptosis than A549 cells, possibly due to higher B cell lymphoma 2 levels and reduced activation of p38 MAPK.
Activation of MAPK signaling pathways and apop totic cell death of A549 cells were correlated to an accumulation of unmodified eIF5A1, suggesting that eIF5A1 anti tumoral activity is independent of hypusine modification. Results Ad eIF5A1 and Ad eIF5AK50A induce activation of ERK kinase, p38 MAPK, and JNK Previous studies have demonstrated that sellckchem treatment with adenovirus eIF5A1 induces apoptosis in A549 lung carcinoma cells and improves duration of survival in mice bearing A549 enograft tumors. In order to e plore the signaling pathways responsible for the anti tumoral activity of eIF5A1, A549 cells were tr