Different orientations of silicon substrate play
a role in CNT growth resulting from different surface energies. In this study, we report the effects of σ and orientation of the silicon substrate on the growth of MWNTs by thermal CVD. We also describe the role of proposed parameters that govern their see more growth kinetics and the knowledge about these. Methods The p-type silicon substrates with different orientations and doping concentrations were prepared. The electrical characteristics for both Si(100) and Si(111) substrates at room temperature were measured using Hall CP673451 mouse measurement equipment (Ecopia HMS-3000, Bridge Technology, Chandler Heights, AZ, USA) and are summarized in Table 1. Silicon oxide layers on the substrate surfaces were removed using a buy VX-661 conventional process with a buffered oxide etching solution. A 6-nm-thick iron film was deposited on the silicon substrate using an ion sputter. The CVD chamber was on standby and pumped down to a low pressure of less than 20 mTorr . Table 1 Results of the Hall measurement by van der Pauw method 1 cm × 1 cm size Bulk concentration Conductivity Mobility (/cm3) (/Ω cm) (Vs/cm) Si(100) U(100) 2.7 × 1012 6.7 × 10-4 15,000 L(100) 1.8 × 1015
9.8 × 10-2 350 H(100) 6.0 × 1019 4.3 × 102 45 Si(111) U(111) 1.0 × 1012 1.7 × 10-4 59 L(111) 1.0 × 1015 6.1 × 10-2 370 H(111) 3.4 × 1019 8.9 × 102 1,600 U, undoped; L, low; H, high. Argon (Ar) gas was flowed into the chamber at a flow rate of 1,000 sccm in this experiment . At the same time, while ammonia (NH3) gas with a flow rate of 140 sccm was flowed into the reactor, the substrates were heated up to the growth temperature of 900°C for 30 min and then maintained at 900°C for 5 min. Acetylene (C2H2) gas was supplied to synthesize MWNTs with a flow rate of 20 sccm for 10 min at 900°C [15, 16]. After the growth of MWNTs, the chamber was cooled down to room temperature and purged with Ar ambient. This work has focused on the size contribution and formation of catalyst particles oxyclozanide by supporting substrate orientation
and conductivity. However, the samples must be taken to the instrument for ex situ analysis. Therefore, we have endeavored that the exposure of samples to air and moisture was minimized. Once the samples were taken out from the chamber and cooled off to room temperature, each sample was divided into small pieces for the characterization by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4300SE, Hitachi, Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Japan), Cs-corrected energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (JEM-2200FS, JEOL Ltd., Akishima-shi, Japan), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; AXIS Nova, Kratos Analytical Ltd., Manchester, UK). The XPS analysis was carried out using an Al K (1,486.