All patients had varying degrees of joint pain and effusion and decreased joint range of motion. No surgical interventions preceded yttrium synovectomy for at least the prior 3 months. The cohort comprised a significant proportion of hemophilia patients due to our hospital being a major treatment centre
for adult hemophilia GSK269962 datasheet in Australia. Patients with hemophilic arthropathy were routinely given secondary product prophylaxis for several weeks before and after the intervention except in the presence of inhibitors where they were given cover for the intervention only. Apart from hemophilia patients, all intra-articular knee injections of yttrium 90 were performed without image guidance. For hemophilia patients and
non-knee joints, intra-articular yttrium 90 injection was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Hemophilia patients received prophylactic factor replacement 1 h prior to the procedure. Aspiration of synovial fluid was routinely performed in all joints if possible, prior to yttrium 90 injection to ensure correct positioning and to reduce volume of an effusion if present. Using aseptic technique 5–6 mCi Yttrium 90 was injected for knee and hip joints and 2 mCi for elbow, ankle and shoulder PI3K Inhibitor Library solubility dmso joints. Corticosteroid (Depo-Medrol 80 mg for knee/hip, 40 mg for ankle/shoulders and 20 mg for elbow) and in knees, long acting local anaesthetic (2–4 mL 0.5% marcaine) was injected immediately prior to yttrium 90 administration. The treated joint was immobilized in a tailored splint for 48 h with bremsstrahlung planar imaging performed at 24 h to confirm successful intra-articular
injection. Venetoclax manufacturer Clinical response to yttrium synovectomy was determined by reviewing medical records and rheumatologist case notes at the patients’ first reviews 3 months post-treatment and classified using a four-category grading system based on improvements in degree of pain, size of effusion if present and range of movement. Patients experiencing a complete or moderate response were considered to have a satisfactory response to therapy (Table 1). In responding patients with at least 3 years follow-up, further review of medical records and case notes was performed at 36 months to assess whether response was sustained at this time point. As the majority of newer-generation disease modifying medications were introduced at our institution from 2005 onwards, a sub-analysis was performed to compare response rates to yttrium synovectomy in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthropathy pre- and post-2005. Similarly, factor replacement therapy for hemophiliacs also became readily available from 2005 onwards at our institution and a sub-analysis was performed to compare response rates to yttrium synovectomy in patients with hemophilic arthropathy pre- and post-2005.