(2001) (72%) The Firmicutes phylum dominates the bacterial commu

(2001) (72%). The Firmicutes phylum dominates the bacterial community in pig (55%), human (56%), and beef cattle (70%) Atezolizumab concentration feces suggesting an ecological and functional importance

of this group within the gut across species (Larsen et al., 2010; Lamendella et al., 2011; Shanks et al., 2011). The abundance of Bacteroidetes (3.7%) in the present study is much less than that reported in human (35.4%) and pig (35%) using high-throughput sequencing technologies (Larsen et al., 2010; Lamendella et al., 2011). The total percentage of Bacteroides in this report is also lower than that previously reported in horses; however, the percentage of Bacteroides has been shown to range between 12% and 49% of the total number of clones sequenced (Daly et al., 2001, 2011; Daly & Shirazi-Beechey, 2003; Yamano et al., 2008; Willing et al., 2009). These differences may be associated with source of sample, differences in diet and the sensitivity and numbers of clones examined. Daly et al. (2001, 2011) collected colonic samples from euthanized

horses that grazed pasture, and some received supplemental grain. Yamano et al. (2008) collected fecal samples from horses on bamboo grass pastures. Willing et al. (2009) described a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes in horses that were fed an early cut timothy/meadow fescue haylage as compared to horses fed late cut timothy/meadow fescue and concentrate (27%). Unfortunately, a thorough nutrient analysis that documents carbohydrate content is lacking in the previous citations and thus comparisons related to the role of dietary composition are speculative. While it is likely that forage vs. concentrate find protocol feeding

influences the equine gut microbial community to a greater degree than forage alone, the influence of different types of forages on this community has not been determined. In this study, the low relative abundance of Bacteroidetes may be in part due to the differences in diet; however, it is also possible that the primers used are not inclusive of all members of the phyla. Aquatic members of the Bacteroidetes phylum have been previously underrepresented by PCR primer-based methodologies (Cottrell & Kirchman, 2000). Org 27569 Garner et al. (1975) concluded that the equine bacterial community is dominated by fibrolytic bacteria by the use of culture-based techniques. Fibrobacter spp. represented 0.75% of total bacteria in the present study, which is similar (1.2%) to cecal contents as reported by Julliand et al. (1999). However, other authors who also quantified Fibrobacter spp. by the use of oligonucleotide probes reported Fibrobacter spp. abundance to be 12% in the cecum and around 4% in the colon (Lin & Stahl, 1995; Daly & Shirazi-Beechey, 2003). When quantified by the use of clone library generation, a report of Fibrobacter spp. abundance was lower (0.01%) (Daly et al., 2001). Ruminococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp.

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