5% versus 2.9%). Onset
of these disorders is believed to be prior to or at birth, while symptoms are usually not evident until age 2 years or later; generally Asperger’s disorder is not recognized until later. ASDs are chronic, devastating neuropsychological disorders and are four times more common in males than females. While many hypotheses have been explored to explain the etiology of this cluster of disorders, no single cause has been agreed upon, though the research exploring genetic factors is one of the most promising.144,145 Recent advances in imaging have been fruitful in research Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on understanding ASDs. These disorders have very complex and vast symptoms, but their neural substrates are beginning to be untangled. At this time, it seems clear that delayed frontal lobe metabolic maturation occurs in autism,146 which may be related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to some of the early repetitive behaviors. There is also bilateral temporal hypoperfusion.147,148 Overall, there seems to be a widespread disorganized establishment of neural Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical circuits.149 Abnormalities in the cerebellum with a wide range of consequences
has also been established.150 As in OCD, hypotheses of the etiology of ASD suggest dysregulation of the serotonin system.151 SRIs, the treatments of choice for OCD, have been used clinically in the treatment of repetitive I-BET-762 research buy behaviors in autism. Promising results have been found in small controlled trials of the efficacy of clomipramine and fluvoxamine,152 and we are currently conducting controlled studies of the
efficacy of fluoxetine versus placebo in both childhood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and adult autism. Given the complex, multifaceted symptomatology found in ASDs, we do not expect one class of agents to be uniquely effective in treating their global severity. Rather, it is likely that treatments will be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most effective against targeted symptoms. Since these disorders also have an impulsive element, with sometimes prominent aggression, self-injury, and mood instability, we are conducting a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the mood-stabilizer divalproex sodium in children and adolescents with autism. Other successful treatments of ASDs include intensive behavioral therapies are the most widely recognized modalities of treatment for ASDs. Home- and schoolbased behavioral therapies aim tuclazepam toward reducing repetitive and self-/other injurious behaviors and increasing communication and social skills. Conclusions The concept of an OC spectrum of related disorders is a powerful one that has helped generate theoretical discussion and research questions in broad areas of their etiology, neurobiology, and treatment. Though coming from a wide range of diagnostic categories and differing in significant ways, research to date suggests that, in addition to sharing some symptom patterns, these disorders have many other similarities.