We also examined the light-evoked synaptic inputs from ON and OFF

We also examined the light-evoked synaptic inputs from ON and OFF synaptic pathways to amacrine cells in developing retinas and found that the light-evoked synaptic input of amacrine cells is also downregulated in developing mouse retina. Different

from the developmental changes of RGC spontaneous synaptic activity, dark rearing has little www.selleckchem.com/screening/protease-inhibitor-library.html effect on the developmental changes of light-evoked synaptic activity of both RGCs and amacrine cells. Therefore, we concluded that the synaptic mechanisms mediating spontaneous and light-evoked synaptic activity of RGCs and amacrine cells are likely to be different. “
“The retina sends spatially ordered visual information to the superior colliculus (SC) directly and indirectly via the thalamus and primary visual cortex (V1). Gradients of Ephs and ephrins are present in all of these regions, and have been shown to be involved in establishing topography of at least some of these interconnected visual pathways. Studies in ephrin-A knockout mice show that abnormal retinotectal termination zones (TZs) are present

in a majority of mice lacking (−/−) ephrin-A2 (57%), and Volasertib molecular weight ephrin-A2 and -A5 (89%). A similar but seemingly less disordered pattern is detected in the retina-to-dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and dLGN-to-V1 projections. Here we 4��8C analyse the dLGN-to-V1 and V1-to-SC projections in ephrin-A−/− mice to determine the extent to which topographic errors are transmitted across synaptic relays. Fluorescent tracers were injected into V1 of wild-type (WT), ephrin-A2−/− or ephrin-A2A5−/− mice. We examined the number, location and size of anterograde TZs in SC, and mapped the distribution of retrogradely labelled neurons in dLGN. Compared with WT and ephrin-A2−/− mice, the volume of individual TZs in the SC was smaller

in ephrin-A2A5−/− mice (P = 0.002). Single V1 injections labelled two foci of dLGN neurons in 70%, and two SC TZs in 80% of ephrin-A2A5−/− mice. Abnormalities in one or other of the projections were detected in 10% of ephrin-A2−/− mice. Importantly, there was no consistent correspondence between the organization of geniculocortical and corticotectal projections in either genotype, suggesting a role for ephrin-As in maintaining topographic organization in register across multiple interconnected central visual pathways. “
“Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. Here, we determined the subunit composition of hetero-pentameric nAChRs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the function of distinct receptors (obtained by deletions of nAChR subunit genes) and mechanisms at the level of nAChRs that might compensate for the loss of subunits.

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