This is macroscopically visible through the conjunctiva The open

This is macroscopically visible through the conjunctiva. The openings of the

Meibomian glands are macroscopically not discernible. The light pink, smooth, and crescent-shaped lacrimal gland lies next to the aforementioned broadened part of the Meibomian glands in the temporal canthus. The whitish, 0.9-cm-long, smooth Harderian gland is firmly attached to the posterior part of the globe and extends nasally from the optic nerve to the equator. Furthermore, chinchillas possess two lacrimal puncta, situated on the inner conjunctival surface of both eyelids near the medial canthus. A pigmented lacrimal canaliculus learn more originates from each punctum. The vestigial nictitating membrane is supported by a hyaline cartilage and is pigmented at its free margin. Conclusions Chinchillas possess a Harderian gland, a lacrimal gland, and Meibomian glands. The GC density in the nasal and temporal palpebral conjunctiva is higher than in guinea pigs.”
“Background: The factors impacting poststroke functional dependency have not been adequately explored in sub-Saharan Africa. AZD6738 molecular weight This study examined the risk factors for functional dependency in a group

of Nigerian African stroke survivors. Methods: One hundred twenty-eight stroke survivors attending a tertiary general hospital in southwestern Nigeria were consecutively recruited and assessed for functional dependency using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Stroke was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Candidate independent variables assessed included the demographic and clinical characteristics

of survivors, cognitive dysfunction, Selleck Autophagy inhibitor and a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Variables with significant relationship to functional dependency were entered into a logistic regression model to identify factors that were predictive of functional dependency among the stroke survivors. Results: In all, 60.9% of the stroke survivors were functionally dependent (mRS scores >= 3), with mean +/- SD mRS scores of 2.71 +/- 1.01. Female sex (P = .003; odds ratio [OR] 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-6.44), global cognitive dysfunction (P = .002; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.79-14.16), and major depressive disorder (P < .0001; OR 3.06; 95% CI 1.92-4.87) were strongly associated with functional dependency in univariate analysis. Major depressive disorder was an independent predictor of functional dependency in multivariate analysis (P < .0001; OR 6.89; 95% CI 2.55-18.6; R-2 = 0.19). Conclusions: Depression, female sex, and cognitive dysfunction were strongly associated with poorer functioning after stroke. Interventions aimed at depression and cognitive dysfunction after stroke may improve functional independence in stroke survivors.

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