The present study investigated the transcription-dependent change

The present study investigated the transcription-dependent changes of Arc in response to the activation of group I mGluR by (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) in cultured cortical neurons. The increase in Arc mRNA did not require de nova protein synthesis, indicating that Arc is an immediate early gene upon DHPG stimulation. We further examined the major pathways involved in group I mGluR signaling, and found that DHPG-induced Arc up-regulation depended on CaMK, PLC, and ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, the activity of NMDA receptors, GSK2118436 mouse but not L-type voltage gated calcium channels (L-VGCC), was required for Arc transcription. Interestingly, blocking CaMK, PLC, and NMDAR, but not L-VGCC, suppressed

DHPG-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. These data suggest the central role of ERK1/2 in group I mGluR-mediated Arc transcription. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A real-time RT-PCR method was developed AZD9291 concentration for the detection of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The VP5 gene of IBDV was chosen as the target binding region for a specific TaqMan probe.

The results showed that viral genomic copy number could be quantified accurately ranging from 10(8) copies/mu L to 10(1) copies/mu L. No positive signal was detected for other avian pathogens in the specificity test. This assay was highly sensitive and could detect as little as 30 copies of viral RNA. Both the coefficients of variation (CVs) of inter- and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 2%. Growth curves of the IBDV Gt strain in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF)and DF-1 cells were evaluated by the real-time RT-PCR. The data showed that the cytopathic effects found of the virus in CEF and DF-1 cells were similar. However, higher viral titers were detected in

the DF-1 cell line. This study indicated that the real-time RT-PCR approach provided a powerful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification and quantitation of IBDV. The DF-1 cell line may be a more suitable continuous cell line for the propagation of IBDV compared to CEF (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Myelin contains many axonal outgrowth inhibitory components which contribute to regeneration failure after neuronal injury in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In an attempt to develop small molecular agents to promote axonal outgrowth, we screened a compound library purified from traditional Chinese herbs, and found a small molecular compound polygalasaponin G (PS-G), extracted from Polygala japonica, which has a potent neurotrophic activity on PC12 cells and cultured cortical neurons. We reported, to our knowledge for the first time, that PS-G could promote neurite outgrowth of neurons cultured on the myelin substrates and inhibit the activation of RhoA. Thus, our results could represent a therapeutic approach to improve axon regeneration after CNS injuries.

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