Our findings support the concept of altered Sertoli cell developm

Our findings support the concept of altered Sertoli cell development in TDS, especially in cryptorchid testes, but show that maturational defects in Sertoli cells in adulthood most commonly reflect secondary dedifferentiation in absence of germ cells.”
“Prion diseases encompass a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrP) isoforms. Other conformational variants of PrP have also been proposed to contribute to neurotoxicity in prion diseases, including misfolded intermediates as well as cytosolic and transmembrane isoforms. To better understand PrP neurotoxicity, we analyzed the role of two

highly conserved methionines in GS1101 helix 3 on PrP biogenesis, folding and pathogenesis. Expression of the PrP-M205S and -M205,212S mutants in Drosophila led to hyperglycosylation, intracellular accumulation and widespread conformational changes due to failure of oxidative folding. Surprisingly, PrP-M205S and -M205,212S acquired a transmembrane topology (Ctm) previously linked to mutations in the signal

peptide (SP) and the transmembrane domain (TMD). PrP-M205,212S also disrupted the accumulation of key neurodevelopmental proteins in lipid rafts, resulting in shortened axonal projections. These results uncover a new role for the hydrophobic domain in promoting oxidative folding and preventing Ruboxistaurin concentration the formation of neurotoxic Ctm PrP, mechanisms that may be relevant in the pathogenesis of both inherited and sporadic prion diseases.”
“Exposure to acute stress by forced swim impairs spatial learning and memory in rats. The retrosplenial cortex plays an important role in BAY 63-2521 research buy spatial learning and memory. A cell population that expresses immature neuronal markers, including doublecortin (DCX), plays a key role in plasticity of the adult brain through formation of new neurons. Here, we aimed to determine whether rats exposed to acute stress showed changes in DCX expression in retrosplenial cortex

cells. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Six were subjected to acute stress by forced swim (group S), and the remaining six served as controls (group C). Immunohistochemical staining was performed for DCX, neuron-specific nuclear protein, parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin. Newly generated cells were immunohistochemically detected by daily administration of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine for 1 week. Fluoro-Jade B staining was performed to detect cell death. Group S showed lower number of DCX-expressing cells than group C (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCX-expressing cells showing neuron-specific nuclear protein co-localization (24% in group S; 27% in group C) or parvalbumin co-localization (65% in group S; 61% in group C) remained unchanged after acute stress exposure. Neither 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-positive nor Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells were found in the retrosplenial cortex of groups S and C.

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