On the basis of these observations, we adopted an ontology-based

On the basis of these observations, we adopted an ontology-based approach to systemize JNK-IN-8 knowledge for the knowledge structuring of SS. Development of a reference model for knowledge

structuring in sustainability science Based on the identified requirements (“Requirements for knowledge structuring in sustainability science”) and ontology engineering technology (“Ontology-based knowledge structuring”), we propose a reference model for SS knowledge structuring to support idea generation for problem finding and solving. Sustainability science should be defined not by the domains it covers but by the problems it tackles (Clark 2007). Due to the complexity and diversity of sustainability issues, it is important to identify and evaluate relationships between problems, causes, impacts, solutions, and their interactions. Those relationships eFT508 cost usually depend on the specific context of an individual case or problem. Problems and their solutions need to be explored within each problem’s specific context. Therefore, SS knowledge needs several kinds of structural and methodological information for problem finding and solving, as well CH5424802 concentration as information about the raw data. Structural information can be divided into the underlying static information structure of SS and the dynamic information linked with human thought.

The dynamic information can then be divided into information that reflects individual perspectives and information that organizes these perspective-based information structures within a specific context. Methodological information refers to information that facilitates problem finding

and solving based on these contextualized information structures. We propose a reference model that consists of layers corresponding to these five kinds of information: raw data, underlying static information structure, dynamic information reflecting individual perspectives, dynamic information organizing perspectives within context, and methodological information. The reference model is not a solution for structuring knowledge; rather, it is a model that can be referred to when discussing knowledge structuring in SS. It contributes to evaluating and understanding the differences and commonalities of knowledge structuring tools and methods to be proposed Cytidine deaminase in the future by providing a common framework in which they are compared. Hess and Schlieder have verified the conformity between reference models and their domain models on a specific domain (Hess and Schlieder 2006). In this paper, we focus on developing a reference model of the knowledge structuring approach for SS. As shown in Fig. 1, the reference model consists of five layers. The bottom layer, Layer 0, is the data layer and stores raw data corresponding to the real world. Layer 1, the ontology layer, stores the ontology for explaining and understanding the raw data at Layer 0.

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