It was observed that extreme water levels rise towards the inside

It was observed that extreme water levels rise towards the inside of the bay – this is called the bay effect. Palbociclib The Bay of Mecklenburg is that part of the Baltic Sea where the greatest falls in sea level due to storm surges have been recorded (levels lower than − 140 cm), which is associated with the relatively small depths and

the above-mentioned bay effect. The Swedish coasts of the central Baltic (the Northern and Southern Baltic Proper, Western Gotland Basin) are the least exposed to extreme sea levels. This is determined mainly by the easterly exposure of the coast, i.e. the direction opposite to that in which low pressure systems propagate. The results are consistent

with the work of Averkiev and Venetoclax nmr Klevanny, 2007 and Averkiev and Klevanny, 2010, Suursaar et al., 2003 and Suursaar et al., 2007, Stigge (1994), Jensen & Müller-Navarra (2008), Johansson (2004), Sztobryn et al., 2005 and Sztobryn et al., 2009, according to which the south-western and eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea (Bay of Mecklenburg, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Finland, the northern part of the Bothnian Bay) are exposed to especially dangerous storm surges caused by the deep troughs of low pressure passing through these regions. Detailed data on the occurrence of maximum and minimum sea levels from 1960 to 2010 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase for different areas of the Baltic Sea are presented in Table 1. The adoption of

the European Vertical Reference System (EVRS 2000) by the Baltic states has enabled all observational data to be converted into one reference level NAP and to show the topography of the surface waters in the whole Baltic Sea area. Owing to the complex nature of the phenomenon, the analysis of extreme changes in water levels during storm surges is complicated. It is hindered by the fact that changes in sea level are largely affected by local conditions – the configuration of the coastline, as well as the morphology and bathymetry of the coastal zone. Therefore, when analysing extreme water levels, it is important to determine the long-term probability forecast based on the longest observation series of maximum and minimum annual sea levels. Probability analysis determines the so-called theoretical sea levels that may occur once in a number of years, e.g. once in 50 or 100 years.

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