Data Collection and Analysis


Data Collection and Analysis

Duplicate see more trial assessment, selection and data abstraction.


Twenty-two trials involving 8,485 women. Continent pregnant women (prevention) who had intensive antenatal PFMT were less likely to report urinary incontinence up to 6 months

after delivery (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.95). Incontinent postnatal women (treatment) who received PFMT were less likely to report urinary incontinence 12 months after delivery (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.35-1.03). In a mixed population (women with and without incontinence symptoms in late pregnancy or after delivery), PFMT did not reduce incontinence rates after delivery.

Authors’ Conclusions

For women who are continent during pregnancy, PFMT may prevent urinary

incontinence up to 6 months after delivery. The extent to which mixed prevention and treatment approaches to PFMT in the postnatal period are effective is less clear that is, offering advice on PFMT to all pregnant or postpartum women whether they have incontinence symptoms or not. There was little evidence about long-term effects for either urinary or fecal incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:269-276, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose: To examine the added value of an algorithmic combination of visual-analogue thermometers compared with the Distress Thermometer (DT) when attempting GW572016 to detect depression, anxiety or distress in early cancer.

Methods: We report Classification and Regression Tree and logistic regression analyses SBE-β-CD purchase of the new five-domain Emotion Thermometers tool. This is a combination of five visual-analogue scales in the form of four mood domains (distress, anxiety, depression, anger) as well as need for help. 130 patients attending for their first chemotherapy treatment were assessed. We calculated optimal accuracy for each domain alone and in combination against several criterion standards.


When attempting to diagnose depression the Depression Thermometer (DepT) used alone was the optimal approach, but when attempting to detect broadly defined distress or anxiety then a combination of thermometers was most accurate. The DepT was significantly more accurate in detecting depression than the DT. For broadly defined distress a combination of depression, anger and help thermometers was more accurate than the DT alone. For anxiety, while the anxiety thermometer (AnxT) improves upon the DT alone, a combination of the DepT and AnxT are optimal. In each case the optimal strategy allowed the detection of at least an additional 9%, of individuals. However, combinations are more laborious to score. In settings where the simplest possible option is preferred the most accurate single thermometer might be preferable as a first stage assessment.

Conclusion: The DT can be improved by specific combinations of simple thermometers that incorporate depression, anxiety, anger and help. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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