CdCl2 and PbCl2 are the most volatile documented species for lead

CdCl2 and PbCl2 are the most volatile documented species for lead and cadmium. Indeed, chloride formation is used to increase the volatilization of both cadmium and lead in high temperature treatments [95]. Chloride formation is expected to take place in cigarettes. Large amounts of melted KCl crystals were found in a cigarette extinguished during a puff both in front of the char line [103] and in the ash [112], demonstrating chloride availability. Chlorine content of straw (0.5–2%) is very similar to that of tobacco and large amounts of CdCl2 are found in fly ash from straw combustion [113]. In theory, a reaction with

chlorine is also possible for arsenic. If released as the volatile species As2O3, arsenic can react with chlorine to yield AsCl3, a volatile compound [95]. In both As2O3 and AsCl3 arsenic Avasimibe clinical trial is in the As(III) oxidation state, the speciation shown as mostly prevalent in fresh cigarette smoke [92] and [93]. As vapors move away from the burning coal their temperature Adriamycin mw drops very fast,

causing most elemental species to nucleate or deposit. Elements can deposit on aerosol particles, remaining airborne. If they deposit on tobacco, they may be mobilized in a consecutive puff. The temperature at which lead and cadmium will deposit depends on their speciation. In biomass fluidized bed gasification, cadmium in the exit gas is still found mostly in the gas-phase at 380 °C but lead condenses to the particle-phase as soon as the temperature drops to below 500 °C [97]. This is, however, in the absence of chlorine. Pure CdCl2 starts vaporizing above 400 °C [111]. Chlorides are the most volatile documented species for lead and cadmium, being liberated at 600 °C from most matrices

[114]. In a study performed under reduced pressure on pure PbCl2 and CdCl2, nanometer Chlormezanone scale nucleation was observed below 150 °C [115]. Indeed, PbCl2 and CdCl2 were shown to be removed by filtration from an aerosol at 120 °C [114]. In cigarette mainstream smoke, they are therefore part of the TPM when they reach the filter. Since according to [115] CdCl2 could be sublimed in substantial amounts at 400 °C, this cadmium species should readily transfer to sidestream smoke since gases escape from a smoldering cigarette at about 350 °C [116]. As CdCl2 condenses out of the gas-phase below 150 °C, it should be a particle-phase compound immediately after leaving the cigarette. The same conclusions should apply to PbCl2 except that the lead species may be liberated at higher temperature with a lower yield. These conclusions are fully consistent with observations made from sidestream smoke sampling when using the fishtail method [117]. Only 2 and 4% of the sidestream smoke yield of lead and cadmium were respectively found deposited on the collection flask, showing their presence in the particle-phase.

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