A significant proportion of patients discontinued treatment becau

A significant proportion of patients discontinued treatment because of side effects. Additional studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine

the optimal treatment of HCV infection in the dialysis population. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“While there are a plethora of medications that block seizures, these same drugs have little effect on preventing or curing epilepsy. This suggests that the molecular pathways for epileptogenesis are distinct from those that produce acute seizures and therefore will require the identification of novel truly ‘antiepileptic’ therapeutics. Identification and testing of potential antiepileptic drug targets first in animal models and then in humans is thus becoming an important next step in the battle against epilepsy. In focal forms of human epilepsy the battle, however, is complicated by the large and varied types of brain abnormalities capable of producing a state of chronic, recurrent seizures. Selleck URMC-099 Unfortunately, once the epileptic state develops, it often persists to produce a life-long seizure disorder that

can only be suppressed by anticonvulsant medications, and cured only in some through surgical resection of the seizure focus. While deductive approaches to drug target identification use our current state of knowledge, based mostly on animal models of epileptogenesis, a growing reductionist approach often referred to as systems biology takes advantage of newer high-throughput technologies to profile large numbers and types of molecules simultaneously. Poziotinib concentration Some of these approaches, such as functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have been undertaken in both human and animal epileptic brain tissues and are beginning to hone in on new therapeutic targets. While these methods are highly sensitive, this same sensitivity also produces a high rate of false positives due to variables other than those of interest. The experimental design, therefore, needs

to be tightly controlled to reduce these unintended results that can be misleading. Most importantly, epileptogenic targets need to be validated in animal models of epileptogenesis, so that, if successful, these new methods have the potential to identify unbiased, important new therapeutics. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. PI3K inhibitor All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aims: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), no data on resistant hypertension (RH) are so far available despite the high prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension. We evaluated frequency, correlates and prognosis of RH in 300 consecutive incident hypertensive CKD patients in an academic renal clinic. Methods: RH was defined as office blood pressure (BP) >= 130/80 mm Hg despite >= 3 drugs at full dose including a diuretic, or as BP at goal with >= 4 full-dose drugs. Patients were evaluated at referral and after 6 months of nephrology management; thereafter, they were included in a renal survival analysis lasting 37.6 months.

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