36 and 37 All 5 studies contributed individual patient data to th

36 and 37 All 5 studies contributed individual patient data to the Selleckchem Bcl-2 inhibitor GERD control group and 4 of the studies contributed individual patient data to the population-based control group. Study-specific definitions of the case and control groups are detailed in Table 1. In total, the 5 studies provided 1320 cases of Barrett’s esophagus, 1659 GERD controls, and 1434 population-based controls. For this analysis, and if a study provided such data, we excluded individuals who had ever smoked pipe tobacco or cigars (156 Barrett’s esophagus cases, 132 GERD controls, 153 population-based

controls) because comparing cigarette smokers with those who do not use other forms of tobacco provides a more accurate estimate of the effect of cigarette smoking. Ever smoking pipe tobacco or cigars was defined as meeting a study-specific low JAK inhibitor threshold exposure (a period of ≥6 months or ≥20 times during the life-course). Because of the relatively small number of non-white Barrett’s esophagus cases remaining

(17 black, 31 Hispanic, 39 other, and 18 missing), we restricted our analysis to white study participants. After exclusions, there remained 1059 Barrett’s esophagus cases, 1332 GERD controls, and 1143 population-based controls for analysis. Data acquisition and data pooling for each study were approved by the Institutional Review Board or Research Ethics Committee of the institute(s) sponsoring the study. The primary exposure variables were cigarette smoking status (ever vs never) and total cigarette smoking exposure (pack-years; 0, <15, 15–29, 30–44, ≥45). Additional exposure variables included duration of cigarette smoking (<30 years, ≥30 years), cigarette smoking intensity (<1, 1, and >1 packs/day), age of cigarette smoking initiation (<17, ≥17 years), and duration of cigarette smoking cessation (<20 years, ≥20 years). Cigarette smoking intensity and cigarette smoking duration in the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill study were ascertained in categories and were recoded to the median

of the categories using the distributions of the other 4 studies combined. Ever Ergoloid cigarette smoking was defined as either low threshold exposures (≥100 cigarettes, ≥20 packs of cigarettes, 1 cigarette a day for ≥6 months) or by asking whether the patient had ever smoked. The following covariates were assessed for inclusion in regression models: age; sex; BMI (weight divided by square of height [kg/m2]); education; alcohol; fat, and trans-fat consumption; calories per day; meat, vegetable, and fruit servings per day; fiber consumption; heartburn, and regurgitation (population-based control models only); esophagitis; Helicobacter pylori seropositivity; hiatal hernia; and medication use (ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and H2-receptor antagonists).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>