29 Further, its diagnostic approach has not been standardized.30 Previous reports demonstrated that patients with disseminated TB usually have several abnormal laboratory findings, showing elevated alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase, hyperferritinemia, and hypercalcemia.15 Our study found an association between PCT levels over the normal
cutoff or sTREM-1 levels above the best cutoff and disseminated TB. This implicates that measurement of serum PCT or sTREM-1 should be considered in certain PTB patients, where its positivity would raise the clinical suspicion of disseminated TB. In contrast RG7422 nmr to PCT, increased serum levels of CRP over the upper limit of normal are not uncommonly seen in PTB.3, 5 and 7 In this study, no significant difference was observed in the discriminative power of PCT, CRP, and sTREM-1 for differentiating survivors and nonsurvivors in the context of PTB after 6-month follow-up.
However, after controlling for confounders, CRP was no longer predictive of mortality. Similarly, it has been shown in other studies that serum CRP levels do not predict mortality in PTB patients.4 and 5 A higher PCT or sTREM-1 level at PTB diagnosis is associated with increased mortality. How could the knowledge of baseline PCT or sTREM-1 influence clinical practice? It is hardly possible to answer the question on the basis of evidence-based medicine, but we suggest that these patients should be closely monitored, undergo further clinical and laboratory investigations to assess disease extent and
identify EPZ015666 price comorbidities, and receive sophisticated organ support and possibly more efficacious anti-TB therapy. Clearly, further Megestrol Acetate studies will be required to clarify these issues. This study has several limitations that merit attention. First, we only measured PCT, CRP, and sTREM-1 levels on the diagnosis of PTB, but did not follow their dynamic changes after starting anti-TB treatment. The changing trends for these biomarkers may further improve the prognostic value in PTB patients. Second, the optimal cutoff of sTREM-1 found in this study may not be replicated in future studies because standardization of the sTREM-1 assays is not yet available. Third, although our study included a relatively large number of PTB patients, the majority had drug-susceptible TB and HIV-positive patients were excluded. Thus, the prognostic value of PCT and sTREM-1 remains to be determined in multidrug-resistant or HIV-positive PTB patients. Fourth, the present study included older patients than other studies31 and 32; this may hinder the generalizability of our results to younger PTB patients. In conclusion, our study found significantly higher PCT, CRP, and sTREM-1 levels in nonsurvivors than in survivors among PTB patients. A serum level of PCT ≧0.