1 and Fig 4) The ground cover between trees comprises woody deb

1 and Fig. 4). The ground cover between trees comprises woody debris and leaf litter of up to ∼10 cm in thickness, which is absent in select locations, particularly where gullying is observed and bare earth and roots selleck chemicals are exposed (Fig. 2C). The remaining 15% of the watershed surface cover is occupied by a paved parking

lot south of the pond and open urban cover (i.e. laws) in the northwestern portion of the watershed (Fig. 1). The parking lot is directly connected to the pond by a culvert; while contaminants (oil, etc.) are likely to be transported into the pond from the parking lot, it is excluded as a clastic sediment source given its shallow nature. The Lily Pond watershed excludes the outlying residential areas; no other anthropogenic drainage features such as culverts connect to the Lily Pond watershed from outside its boundary. All non-forested land-cover types (i.e. open urban cover, parking lot, etc.) occupy shallow terrain within the drainage basin (Fig. 1). Steep slopes of up to 38° connect directly to the pond along its northern rim. These areas exhibit signs of soil erosion, including exposed tree roots and small rills, while the slope Nintedanib chemical structure toes show signs of deposition into the pond (Fig. 2C). Surface features across the study area suggest that during surface-runoff events soil and sediment particles

are washed down the slopes efficiently (i.e. without en-route storage) and directed into the pond, which represents the ultimate sediment sink for eroded materials. Proximity of steep hillslopes to the pond (Fig. 1 and Fig. 4B) and absence of sediment-storage potential along the slope base (Fig. 3) promote high-sediment connectivity between well-coupled slope and

pond environments. The lack of sediment storage sites in the steeply inclined portions of the watershed suggests that pond sedimentation should closely approximate soil erosion in the watershed. This site therefore makes a suitable location for assessing the application potential of the USLE model in urban forest settings. An erosion model based on the simple USLE (Wischmeier and Smith, 1965 and Wischmeier and Smith, 1978) was constructed for the Lily Pond watershed within ArcGIS Version 10.1. Revised versions of the USLE C59 mouse exist that revise weather factors (i.e. seasonal and event-based effects), extend the equation’s application to non-agricultural settings, and include runoff-driven effects (Renard et al., 1994, Renard et al., 1997 and Dabney et al., 2011). However, the small study area lacks topographic complexity aside from several small gully features, which comprise <5% of the watershed area (Fig. 3). Incorporating gullies would require specialized model parameterization or the integration of the USLE with an additional sediment-delivery model for channelized processes (Fernandez et al., 2003).

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