The thermal durability
of the developed systems is studied through thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics of the polymerization processes is analyzed. The effectiveness of three catalysts commonly used in polyesterification is investigated. The effect of reaction temperature is also examined. The progress of polycondensation reactions over time takes a nonlinear behavior of slight sigmoidal shape, irrespective of whether or not the reaction is catalyzed. Simple second and third order equations, along with a nonlinear model, are used to determine the kinetic parameters characterizing these reactions. The rate of reaction is enhanced when the reaction temperature is increased. Overall, second-order kinetics well describes the polymerization reactions when the data set is divided into two regions. Antimony trioxide induces Cl-amidine supplier a more visible enhancement to the rate of reaction, compared to zinc acetate and sodium acetate. The presence of a catalyst generally increases the reaction activation energy. This indicates
that entropy factors outweigh the increase in activation energy and drive the catalyzed reactions to completion. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1359-1369, 2012″
“Introduction: Chronic cocaine use is associated with some executive deficits. We assessed executive functions using ecologically valid tests in chronic cocaine users.
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between executive deficits and three measures of severity of cocaine use: years of use, quantity used, and frequency of R406 nmr use.
Methods: Twenty-four cocaine users were compared with twenty-seven community controls. We used Student’s t-test and Chi-squared to compare means and categorical variables, respectively. Linear regression analyses for the adjusted comparative analysis between cases and controls, and severity of cocaine use
among cocaine users were performed.
Results: Chronic cocaine users performed worse on measures of attention and working memory (Forward and Backward Digit Span, p < .001), set-shifting abilities (difference score between the Trail Making B and A, TMB-A, p=.006), cognitive test of mental flexibility and response inhibition (Rule Shift Cards) (p < .001), and prefrontal functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST, p=.023) than controls. Years of cocaine use were associated www.selleckchem.com/products/jnk-in-8.html with deficits in the Backward Digit Span (p=.041; CI 95%: -.760 to -.002), the TMB-A (p=.026; CI 95%: .687 to 9.761), the Zoo Map (p=.034; CI 95%: -.480 to -.021), and the Rule Shift Cards (p=.006; CI 95%: -.836 to -.164), among others. Quantity of cocaine use was associated with executive deficits measured by the Forward Digit Span (p=.007; CI 95%: -.727 to -.133), the TMB-A (p=.021; CI 95%: 5.304-57.945), and the number of perseverative errors in the WSCT (p=.002; CI 95%: -10.654 to -2.800). Frequency of cocaine was associated with deficits in the Backward Digit Span (p=.042; CI 95%: -1.548 to -.030).