It should be noted that most of the wounds we have evaluated in t

It should be noted that most of the wounds we have evaluated in the past have relatively high overall numbers of bacteria (>105 per mg debridement, based upon quantitative molecular methods) so even relatively low percentages of individual species such as 2% Anaerococcus spp. may potentially represents a large number of individual bacteria propagating within wound biofilms. Conclusion Dowd et al [15] first used pyrosequencing to survey pooled samples of VLU, diabetic foot ulcers and decubitous ulcers and later did a more comprehensive survey of diabetic foot ulcers [9]. This study takes a similar

but more comprehensive approach with VLU in order to better elucidate the individual ecologies in a large population of such chronic wounds. Here we show that individual wounds MLN4924 have distinct ecological footprints. We also show that within individual wounds there can be both significant site specific differences and relative uniformity in the bacterial ecology. The bottom line appears to be that each wound must be carefully evaluated and that no single pathogen is likely to be the causative agent of such infections. The wound care scientific and clinical opinion leaders have come to accepted the abundance of data showing that these polymicrobial biofilms represent

a primary impediment to wound Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor GS1101 healing [9, 14, 20–22, 22–25, 25–30]. Based upon the current Reverse transcriptase work and previous efforts we can deduce that the unique profiles of each individual wound indicate that a personalized approach to therapeutics combined with the multiple concurrent strategies of biofilm-based wound care [26] will revolutionize wound care. As Tom Pollard indicated in a commentary recently, biofilm-based wound care is “” a significant shift in our whole approach

to wound healing.”" [31]. Biofilm-based wound care combined with individualized therapeutic approaches and accurate rapid molecular diagnostics provides renewed found hope for those suffering with chronic wounds. Methods General sample collection methods Patients were identified with VLU that have been persistent for over 6 months. These patients were enrolled in the study protocol after being educated and signing the informed consent protocol in compliance with Western Institutional Review Board approved protocols 56-RW-004 WIRB® Protocol #20062347. Necessary details of the study including the protocols, guidelines and requirements were thoroughly explained to all the patients. Following these explanations, written consents was obtained in the presence of a third party witness. A copy of the consent form has been provided to journal editors. The patients were well informed that they have the right to opt out of the study at any time in spite of their written consent. VLU wound beds were debrided to remove superficial debris and cleansed with sterile saline.

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