Infection of mice with this mutant strain demonstrated blocking α

Infection of mice with this mutant strain demonstrated blocking α-glucan synthesis has no effect on G217B virulence (Edwards et al., 2011). Analysis of a G217B strain in which α-glucan synthesis was independently blocked by RNAi showed a similar lack of requirement for α-glucan in G217B intramacrophage replication and in lung infection. Interestingly,

although G217B yeast cells lack α-glucan, they can still prevent Dectin-1 recognition of cell wall β-glucan (Edwards et al., 2011). The growth stage-dependent mechanism by which G217B yeast accomplish this is unknown. Thus, G217B (representing chemotype I) and G186A (representing the chemotype II lineages) significantly differ in their mechanisms of pathogenesis with regard to yeast cell wall glucans and avoidance of detection by host immune cells. Yps3 is a secreted cell wall factor with sequence homology to the B. dermatitidis adhesin BAD1. Similar to BAD1, the Yps3 protein AZD5363 interacts

ABT-888 in vivo with chitin on the G217B yeast cell wall (Bohse & Woods, 2005). G217B yeast in which Yps3 production is blocked by RNAi grow similar to the wild-type strain in vitro and exhibit similar virulence in macrophages. However, the Yps3-deficient strain is defective in dissemination to the spleen and liver, implicating Yps3 in progression toward disseminated disease (Bohse & Woods, 2007a). Although the YPS3 gene is transcribed transiently by G186A strains upon shift from 25 to 37 °C, expression is not maintained in the yeast phase (Keath et al., 1989). Sustained expression of the gene and production of the Yps3 protein is restricted to NAm2 strains such as G217B, in vitro (Bohse & Woods, 2007b). Yps3 production in vivo remains to be tested for all Histoplasma strains. In addition, the YPS3 genes of different strains encode proteins with variable numbers of tandem repeats (two in NAm2, 11–12 in Panamanian strains, and 18–20 in NAm1). Thus, both structural and regulatory differences exist among the strains with regards to Yps3.

No genetic tests have been performed to test whether G186A virulence requires Yps3, but the lack of Yps3 production by G186A suggests Clomifene that Yps3 represents a distinct pathogenic mechanism for NAm2 strains. Histoplasma yeast are sensitive to the availability of iron and expresses factors to acquire sufficient iron from the environment. Iron restriction by the host is an important mechanism for restriction of Histoplasma yeast growth similar to control of other intracellular pathogens (Newman et al., 1994). Histoplasma yeast require iron for both in vitro growth (Timmerman & Woods, 1999, 2001) and growth in macrophages (Lane et al., 1991; Newman et al., 1994, 1995). Genetic studies have identified the several gene products as important mechanisms for Histoplasma iron acquisition (Hwang et al., 2003; Hilty et al., 2008, 2011; Zarnowski et al., 2008). Of these genes, only SID1 has been depleted in both G217B and G186A strains (Hwang et al., 2003; Hilty et al.

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