For the lower limb, the upper limit of the water was at the middle of the knee; for the upper limb, the upper limit of the water was
at the armpit after immersion. The water level was then measured to the nearest 1 mm and the corresponding volume calculated using the length, width and height in millimetres of the displaced water and defined as the volume of the arm and the lower leg, respectively. Cubic millimetres were then converted to litres. The reproducibility of the applied VX-809 order method of water displacement using the changes in height in mm was evaluated in a separate series of 20 consecutive measurements in one individual. The coefficient of variance (CV) was 1.9%; the mean height of displaced water was 12.0 mm, the 95% confidence interval was 11.8-12.1 mm, and the standard error was 0.05. The CV of the pre-race measurements (n = 15) was 20.3%, the CV of the post-race measurements was 20.6%. The thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured at six sites to the nearest 0.1 mm using LIPO-METER® in an XL184 cost upright position as described by Jürimäe et al. . In order to detect an increase in the thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue due to a clinically visible or palpable oedemata in the face and limbs , the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue at the right side of the body www.selleckchem.com/products/jq-ez-05-jqez5.html at zygomatic arch, the
middle of third metacarpal, at the medial border of the tibia, one handbreadth above medial malleolus, directly at medial Dichloromethane dehalogenase malleolus and at medial cuneiform was measured. Pre- and post-race, venous blood samples were drawn and urine samples were collected. Two Sarstedt
S-Monovettes (plasma gel, 7.5 ml) for chemical and one Sarstedt S-Monovette (EDTA, 2.7 ml) (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht) for haematological analysis were drawn the afternoon before the start of the race and upon arrival at the finish line. Monovettes for plasma were centrifuged at 3,000 g for 10 min at 4 °Celsius. Plasma was collected and stored on ice. Urine was collected in Sarstedt monovettes for urine (10 ml). Blood and urine samples were transported immediately after collection to the laboratory and were analysed within six hours. Immediately after arrival at the finish line, identical measurements were applied. In the venous blood samples, haemoglobin, haematocrit, [Na+], [K+], creatinine, urea, and osmolality were measured. Hematologic parameters were determined using ADVIA® 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA). Plasma parameters were measured using COBAS INTEGRA® 800 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Osmolality of plasma and urine samples was determined using Fiske® Modell 210 Mikro-Osmometer (IG Instrumenten-Gesellschaft AG, Zurich, Switzerland). In the urine samples, creatinine, urea, [Na+], [K+], urine specific gravity and osmolality were determined. Specific gravity was analysed using Clinitek Atlas® Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA).